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2018年5月托福考试写作预测

时间:2018-04-26 17:29来源:江苏朗阁外语培训中心 作者:don
2018年5月托福考试写作预测 综合写作: 1. 为什么锤头鲨(hammerhead shark)的头是扁的? 阅读:提出三个观点 ① 这样转弯快,抓猎物快,它们的猎物(prey)很单一(elusive)。 ② 扁头更

 

2018年5月托福考试写作预测

综合写作:

1. 为什么锤头鲨(hammerhead shark)的头是扁的?

阅读:提出三个观点

① 这样转弯快,抓猎物快,它们的猎物(prey)很单一(elusive)。

② 扁头更容易感知猎物发出来的电场更好捕获。

③ 扁头更容易控制和驱赶猎物,方便使用前倾(pin down)技能。

听力反驳:

① 是其他原因导致转弯快,比如脊椎构造的方式,而且都是研究一些年轻锤头鲨它们本来就很灵活(flexible)。

② 根据实验可知,一些电线(wire)放在水里,扁头鲨和其他的鲨鱼感知的一样。

③ 它的眼睛长在两边老用这个技能会造成眼部疾病甚至失明,也不能证明锤头鲨经常使用该技能。

 

2. 讨论规划焚烧(prescribed burning)的优缺点

阅读:规划焚烧(prescribed burning)的缺点

① 这样会伤害动物,一些年幼的动物来不及逃走。

② 燃烧会加重污染。空气中的二氧化碳以及其他物质会带来酸雨,同时如果风把燃烧的灰烬吹到了别的地方,又会污染别的地区。

③ 燃烧可能会带来自然火灾,这样会需要花更多的时间,钱和资源进行治理。

听力反驳:

① 人们会选择一些特殊的时段(special period),这段时间内的动物没有繁衍(reproduction),所以没有年幼的动物,成年动物可以很轻松的逃走,而且火蔓延的很慢。

② 生长的树(growing trees)可以很快吸收二氧化碳,而且燃烧面积很小,不会排放很多的烟,就算有排放也会被快速吸收掉。

③ 确实会有火灾的发生,但那是由于人为的疏忽,和规划焚烧没有关系,规划焚烧是为了去除一些易燃的物品,比如枯树枝,所以就算那些地方有了自然火灾,也很容易控制或者熄灭。

3. 是否要保护土拨鼠(prairie dog)

阅读:不应该保护

① 这种动物对农业有很大危害,因为会和牛争着吃草(compete with cattle with grass)。

② 这种啮齿类身上携带的各种细菌和疾病会传染给人类,对人类卫生有危害。

③ 与大型的哺乳动物相比,在食物链中并不重要。

听力反驳:

① 牛群只是在固定区域活动(cattle now feed on some specific areas),而且这种啮齿类会让土壤变得充满营养(full of nutrition)。

② 它所携带的病菌比较不同,在一个地区40年里只有10个人从这个啮齿类动物身上感染了致病菌。

③ 这个啮齿类在食物链中占有重要地位,因为蛇、狼等动物会那它作为食物来源。

 

4. 古人修路的用途

阅读:提出三个观点

① 用于运货,move commodities and people。

② 用于宗教,religion。

③ 用于防御系统,defense。

听力反驳:

① 这条路没有连接其他部落,当时没有其他交通工具,当时的人都是步行(on foot),路不需要那么宽。

② 没有证据表明古人的宗教信仰和如今的人一样,所以不应该是宗教的用途。

③ 敌人也可以用这条路,反而更方便他们入侵。

 

5. 关于深海采矿(vent mining)是否合理

阅读:认为深海采矿很有前途

① 能提供很多地表所没有的金属(metal),比如锌(zinc)和银(silver)之类的矿产资源。

② 开采的地区很远,不会伤害到矿区附近的独有的微生物(unique organism)。

③ 法律和相关机构(laws and agencies)可以管理和规范操作(manage and regulate vent mining),这样开采将不会有所伤害。

听力反驳:

① 还没有技术能将金属和沉淀物(sediment)分离并且运输技术也没解决。

② 开采过程中会有一些有害化学物质(harmful chemical)会飞回两公里外矿井(vent)的所在地,所以即便在远处开采业无法不伤害到那些organisms。

③ 矿井在海岸线(coastal areas)边上,不属于管辖范围,开采将不受国际法管理。

 

 

6. 对犀牛的重新迁移(relocation plan)有没有用

阅读:没有用

① 这个过程很难并且很危险(difficult and risky),并且实施的过程中会有损失。

② 这个计划会影响犀牛的繁殖(reproduce)。一些年龄比较大的雄性犀牛被选走了,则会影响生育;如果分开了母犀牛和他们的孩子会带来负面的影响。

③ 对偷猎没有作用,因为不管在哪还是会被偷猎者(poacher)抓,因为他们的犄角(horn)很值钱。

听力反驳:

① 对比运输途中的短期危险(minor short-term risk),在南非遭到偷猎危险更大。而且死亡率没有那么高。

② 计划的执行者会很认真小心的挑选犀牛,这样就不会切段犀牛的关系链(bond),也不会引起隐患。

③ 军队会保护这个计划,有一片很大的地方,偷猎者不会轻易找到,所以这个计划很好。

 

7. 阅读讲Titan的几个未被解释的特征,听力讲这些特征可以被解释

阅读:

①为啥轨道是椭圆的而不是圆的。

②为啥有大量depressions的火山活动。

③为什么沙丘(sand dunes)的slop和预期的相反。

听力反驳:

①因为不是一个moon而是几个组合在一起impact,所以force。

②形成原因和地球上的类似,石头溶解在液体里,经过长时间形成。

③说那里不像地球上,风too weak to 影响slop,之所以east是因为storm carried strong wind。

 

8.金字塔内部竖井(shafts)的作用

阅读:提出三个理论

①让外面的新鲜空气进入,工人在里面很难呼吸(hard to breathe)。

②是和一些星星的方位一致。

③让法老的灵魂(spirit)进入。

听力反驳:

①有的结构(structure)没有延伸到外面。

②早期的星星和神灵并没有联系 (no connection)。

③ 法老的灵魂可以从墙上穿过,不需要通道(passageways)。

 

9.Biofuel(生物燃料)尤其是algae fuel(藻类生产的燃料)能否成为未来主要的能源。

阅读:认为algae fuel 不能称为主要能源的三方面理由:

①  Algae fuel 需要消耗大量的土地和淡水。

②  Algae fuel需要投入大量的资金,相应的设备价格高昂。

③  Algae 需要大量的二氧化碳,而投入的纯二氧化碳只有部分能被吸收,未被吸收的部分将进入空气,污染大气。

听力反驳:

①  Algae可以在任何条件的土地和水中生存,所以可以利用废弃的土地和水资源来生产。

②  Algae的生长周期很短,并且产量很高,所以收益很高,可以用来购买高昂的设备等。

③  可以利用工厂排出的废气二氧化碳来供给algae的生长,并且这样也能够净化空气。

 

10.Whether the Mary Celeste was found by some sailors or not.

阅读:是。The Mary Celeste was found by some sailors:

①  The 海盗偷窃船只pirates robbed the ship and took the sailor away;

②  The dangerous liquids were leaking危险性液体泄露;

③  The ship was sinking 漏水下沉so they went to the lifeboat。

听力:反驳

①  All the valuable things were not missing没有遗失任何贵重物品, the pirates always come for money as long as they get the money, and they should let the sailors go.

②  The liquid has special smell which will linger for a long time液体会有特殊气味。不可能长时间不被发现, it is easy to be noticed when the sailors found the ship if the liquid had been leaking, but the sailors who found the ship didn't mention.

③  The sailors on the ship were very experienced, so they should know that the ship can still sail for a couple of days before it sank, so they probably would not have abandoned the ship and moved to the lifeboat, which is much more dangerous. 船员都很有经验,提前就能知晓船只要下沉。

 

11.Andean遗址是为了抵御(defend)侵略者而修建的

阅读:认为不是为了抵御侵略者

① 遗址的墙不完整,有些地方没有墙。

② 遗址的很多入口(entranceway)都没有防护装置。

③ 遗址内没有证据显示内部可以储存很多水(water supply)和食物。

听力反驳:

① 遗址没有墙的地方,旁边都有很多陡峭的山(cliff)或峡谷,敌人进不去,所以并不需要墙。

② 可以观察(scout)敌人,在敌人进攻前就发现他们。

③ 那个时候天气很干燥,敌人不可能进攻太长时间,之后就撤退了(withdrawal),所以战争就不会持续太长时间(long lasting)。

 

12.船员(sailors)的死亡是否因罐头食物(canned food)里的铅(lead)造成的

阅读:认为不是

① 罐头是用铅封罐(seal),不会进到食物里去。

② 其他船只并没有报告(no report)这个现象。

③ 有可能是净化水系统(water purification system)的管道(tunnel)是由铅制成的。

听力反驳:

① 工人由于工作时间紧张,压力大、粗心,导致密封不好。

② 其他船只的船员没有这个情况是因为没有检查或者报告,因为铅会引起一些很常见的病,比如感到疲劳,头疼,他们就忽略了。

③ 铅管道的净化系统是给船的发动机(steam engine)供水,船组人员(crew)喝的和用的水是用别的方法收集的。

 

13.关于Angkor社会衰落(decline)的原因(历史类;2015.10.10)

阅读:阅读认为Angkor(吴哥,柬埔寨的古都)社会衰落可能的原因有三

① 被侵略(invasion)

② 宗教变化(religious change)

③ 干旱(drought)

听力反驳:

① 一直都是Angkor人在自己统治,历史上没有关于侵略者(invader)的记录。

② 宗教(religion)确实一直在改编,但并非衰退(decline),反而是更加繁荣(flourish)

③ Angkor周围有湖泊,并且在更早之前有过的一次更严重的旱灾中,城里的人们都生存(survive)下来了。所以听力认为这一次干旱人们也应当幸存下来。

 

14.Akkad Kingdom迅速灭亡的三个解释(历史类;2016.03.12)

阅读:阅读给出Akkad Kingdom迅速灭亡的三种解释

① Empire征服地区的人民进行了反抗

② 天气气候恶劣,造成没有足够的食物供给(not enough food supply)

③ Empire想要主导贸易来获得利益(听力原文unfair trade),引起周边国家的不满,甚至导致了几十个外国国王对他的宣战

听力反驳:

① 当时被征服地区的城墙(city wall/defensive wall)已经被政府拆了,反抗军没有城墙保护很容易就会被政府军灭掉

② 虽然天气不好会使粮食减产,但是empire的人民有先进的农业技术,如Irrigation(灌溉)和food preserving(食物保存),所以不会发生shortage of food supply,即使降水少

③ empire一直在寻找新的贸易伙伴,所以即使和一些国家有摩擦,带来的损失也made up by与新国家之间的贸易带来的resources和利益

 

15.一种马匹的养殖是否影响了当地的生态环境(环境类;2016.05.29)

阅读:肯定观点,认为影响

① 过度放牧(over grazing)导致草被吃光,损坏了土壤;

② 马与当地的其他动物一起竞争食物,对于有限的土地资源来说,马匹的过度养殖影响了其他动物的生存;

③ 马匹经常踩踏当地的河流,影响了河水的水质,进而影响了河里鱼类的生存发展。

听力反驳:

① 马匹只吃草类植被的上半部分,根部会保留,所以不会损伤土壤,而且马匹的排泄物是土壤的肥料(manure),有利于土壤的保存;

② 马匹饲养是到处跑动的,所以当地对其他动物的食物供给是足够的。并且如果没有马匹,当地的捕食者(predator)狮子就会只捕食羊,导致其数量急剧减少;

③ 河水水质利于鱼类的生存主要是因为河狸(beaver)的存在。但由于人们认为河狸毁坏庄稼,于是将河狸赶走,才因此导致了河水水质变得较差,鱼类生存受到威胁。所以鱼类生存状况与马匹无关。

 

16.Why toucan(犀鸟)evolved a bill(喙)(动物类;2015.09.13)

阅读:给出了toucan(犀鸟)的bill(喙)的三种用途

① 做为武器against predators

② 利用color and shape to hide from predator

③ 散热get rid of excess/excessive body heat

听力反驳:认为阅读中给出的三种理论都不可靠

① 不可做为weapon,bill很脆弱:it is made of hollow bones(中空的骨头) filled with air, so it’s thin and lightweight or else it can’t fly。If it’s used as a weapon, it will be easily damaged in activities like jabbing(戳)。

② 单只toucan无法利用bill隐藏。They have to call out to each other(召唤鸟群) in order to use the color and shape to blend into(融入,混入) surrounding areas. If they do this, they are going to draw attention from predators

③ Healthy toucan doesn’t use bill,且they need bill to get rid of heat in the daytime(白天), but at night when the temperature is lower, they don’t,they then need to retain body heat。所以说bill不是用来散热的。

 

17.关于保护海龟sea turtles数量减少的建议。(动物类:2017.01.07)

阅读:提出三种保护海龟的方法建议

① 保护海龟的蛋,用mental fences把它们围起来,防止被狗或其他动物吃掉;      

② 塑料袋对海龟有很大威胁,海龟会吃这些塑料袋,以为这些塑料袋是它们的一种食物,所以应该禁止使用塑料袋,而让人们用可重复使用的袋子;

③ fishing vessels,捕鱼的时候会误杀海龟,海龟是要呼吸air的,但是进了捕鱼网就只能在海底呆好久,所以我们发明了一个新的net可以避免这些,所以应该要求使用这种网,另外还要加上法律的保护。

听力:反驳

① 小海龟需要形成high developed磁场感应的能力,它们需要通过这种能力回到海里,但是mental fences会干扰它们形成这种能力,所以不好;

② 现在海里有millions trillions的塑料袋,需要百年才能分解,很难很慢,而且就算分解成小块也是有毒的,所以禁止塑料袋不能解决海龟现在所面临的问题;

③ 让他们用新的网很困难,因为会减少鱼的income,所以很多船并不会使用这种网,而且即使有了法律也没用,渔民们会偷偷地把看到的devices带回港口,然后继续捕鱼。

 

18.关于两种鲸被怀疑是一种鲸的讨论(动物类:2017.06.03)

阅读:认为这两种鲸不是一种,给出三个理由

① 两地间隔1500千米远,逆戟鲸(Orca)不可能游这么远;

② 皮肤颜色不一致;

③ 通过鱼鳍尺寸(fin size)发现两种鲸年龄不一样。

听力:持反驳论点。

① 因为在不同的地方捕食。逆戟鲸(Orca)捕食哺乳动物(mammals)是不需要游很长的距离的,另一种鲸(iceberg)捕食鱼群(fish group),鱼群会游动(fish migrate),所以另一种鲸就会跟着鱼群游行很长的距离;

② 皮肤颜色不一致可能是因为有藻类覆盖在皮肤上(cover with algae),不同季节生长数量不同导致皮肤看起来暗一些;

③ 鱼鳍尺寸(fin size)估计是不准确的,他们的fin长到20岁就不再生长了,所以年龄看起来20多岁可能实际25—30岁;并且科学家在2010年看到的iceberg说不定就是2000年的Orca。

 

19. 金字塔不再建造的原因

阅读:认为很难解释

① 因为埃及人很有技术

② 因大埃及人很有钱

③ 因为埃及人有宗教目的建金字塔

听力:

① 技术有了但是在沙漠中早晚温差大,用来建金字塔的大石头很容易开裂,埃及人找不到办法解决;

② 虽然有钱了,但是政权结构变化了,法老必须要把一部分钱分给其他ru|er,能自己支配的时间钱少了

③ 建金字塔不是一个稳妥的宗教保存方式,因为盗墓者会进去使得死去的人们不安宁所以后来埃及人把坟墓建的很小不引人注目放在不招人眼球的地方,这样就没有贼去盗墓。

 

20. 是否在白令海峡上修桥

阅读:同意

① 水比较浅;

② 可以在大桥上通火车和汽车,方便那些不坐飞机的乘客;

③ 可以降低油和天然气货运的成本。

听力:持反对意见

① 冬天海峡会结冰,并且冬季时间很长,会延长建设的时间,防冻措施也很复杂;

② 海峡两边的路况很差,而且火车还需要倒车;

③ 用管道运输其实更节约成本。

 

21. 俄罗斯一个小岛上发现的14个迷宫的作用假设的三个猜想是否成立

阅读:认为小岛上的迷宫有作用,提出了三个猜想假设

① fish trap, 导致鱼类进的来出不去。

② astronomical functions, 是一种天文器械,因为石头的构造指向太阳。

③ rituals for deeds, 这是一种丧葬仪式的相关物,因为在英国有类似的东西。

听力:反对, 这三个猜想都不成立

① 这些labyrinths被发现于内陆,离海岸线几百英尺远,因此和鱼类不相关。

② 每个labyrinth上都有一个入口,如果和天文有关,所有入口应该朝向一个方向,但是事实是朝向不同方向,因此阅读的内容不成立。

③ 如果是为了rituals, 那周围应该能发现古人的bone tools,有human remains, 但是在周围没发现。

 

22. 动物为什么会玩的三种理论

阅读:提出三种理论

① 为了消耗能量。

② 为了培养捕猎等生存技能。

③ 建立社会关系。

听力:

① 举了一个海洋动物为例(young seal),小动物在等待妈妈找食物回来的适合玩耍,此时根本没有多余的能量。

② 教授提到了一个实验,把猫分成两群,一群可以一起玩,一群不让他们凑在一起玩,但是两群猫在捕猎的技能上并没有区别,所以说玩耍并没有提高他们的技能。

③ 教授说年长的老鼠不玩耍也可以很好的建立和发展关系,但是只有小老鼠才玩耍,说明过了玩耍的年龄也可以很好地建立和谐的社会关系。

 

23. 橡树(oak trees)结的橡子(acorns)是不是早期人类的食物来源

阅读:橡子(acorns)在历史上早期被人类很好地利用,被当做食物的来源。

① 橡树很容易种植和收获(easy to farm and harvest),不怎么需要管理(oak trees need little maintainance),而且可以活好多年。

② 橡子方便储存(Acorns can be stored for a long time)。

③ 橡子虽然具有苦味(bitter taste),但是这种苦味可以解决,人们曾经通过去除苦味基因(eliminate gene)的办法来改变橡子的苦味,因此在早期可以当做人类的食物。

听力:持反对意见

①  虽然橡树很容易种植,但是结出橡子需要很长时间(it take a long time to bear fruit),所以人们通常不愿意等待(wait for the crop)。

② 虽然橡子很方便储存,但是里面含有有毒的化学物质(toxic chemicals),所以生的橡子必须要煮熟(boil),但是煮熟后的橡子就不能储存很久了。

③ 橡子的苦味是由多种基因导致的,人类拥有现代的基因技术(modern genetics)或许可以解决,但是早期的人类并没有移除多种基因的技术。

 

24. 海洋生物大量死亡

阅读:针对海洋生物大量死亡,提出了三种理论 

① 他们住在环礁湖(lagoon)里——跟海洋连接,有海水流进去——后来发生地震切断了与海洋的连接,导致水干了,他们就都死;   

② 致死的病毒导致的。并举了现在海豚(dolphin)的例子,他们也是病毒致死的;

③ 海藻疯长(algal boom),小的动物吃海藻,海藻产生毒素,捕食者又吃小动物,所以都被毒死了。

听力反驳:

① 如果水干了的话,会产生矿物质(minerals),但是实际上并没有发现,所以阅读的假设不成立;

② 病毒也不可能。因为病毒不可能导致大面积的生物死亡,它只会影响到单个物种或者两个相近物种,正如阅读所说的那样。但是哺乳动物和大型鱼类因为同个病毒致死的概率是很低的;

③ 海藻确实可以产生毒素,但在一些化石里发现了很多这些大型哺乳类动物(large mammals)都食草的(plant-eating species),植物里含的毒素较低,那么他们体内的毒素应该不足以导致他们死。

 

25. 阻止 jellyfish 的灭绝

阅读:提出了三种solution   

① 用chemical杀死jellyfish的幼虫

② harvest for human consumption

③ make stricter regulation让ship worker清理船底部附着的jellyfish幼虫

听力反驳:

① chemicals杀不死全部的幼体,它们会再次快速繁殖而且chemicals可能影响species

② jellyfish种类繁多然而只有12种能吃,而且人吃不完

③ 清理船耗时很久会影响出海,导致fish production减少

 

26. 关于the Ninth Legion消失的理论

阅读:提出了三种理论

① The Ninth Legion在苏格兰帮助加入battle,然后被wiped out

② 在荷兰发现roof tile which is a symbol of the Ninth Legion,推测是the Ninth Legion的soldiers修理的

③ The Ninth Legion 在帮助Judea的战役中被wiped out

听力反驳:

① 在这场battle中被wiped out的不是the Ninth Legion,因为如果是的话应该能找到the Ninth Legion遗留下的equipment和weapon,但是并没有

② 建造roof tile需要kiln,但是在荷兰并没有kiln,同时,这种kiln在其他地方有,Britain有,所以有可能是从Britain运来荷兰的,任何人都有可能运来并不一定是the Ninth Legion

③ The Ninth Legion在west,Judea在east,选择the Ninth Legion来帮助战役不是一个good choice,不是一个有效的方式,所以即使要选也会选地方located close to Judea

 

27. 海星死亡的原因

阅读:提出了三种理论

① 越来越多sea star的死亡是寄生虫的原因,因为寄生虫扩散很快,而且attach在sea star身上

② 可能是shellfish有细菌,而他们以shellfish为食,原因是他们做过实验

③ Sea star的死亡可能是因为水温越来越高导致他们的免疫系统变差

听力反驳:

① 寄生虫扩散快只发生在繁殖季节,而海星是整年都在死亡

② 他们实验中用的细菌是无害的,而且是海星已经适应了的,不具有说明性

③ 发现海星死亡的地方水都是恒温的,温度并不高

 

28. 一项禁止外来动物的法律(US will issue a new law to restrict importing, selling nonnative animals.)

阅读:不同意这项法律

① 很多现在养宠物的人会被迫交出他们的宠物(be forced to turn their pet over to the   authorities);

② 这项法案会花很多钱(the law is too expensive to implement.);

③ 即使有些生物有危害,但由于它们的寿命不长,所以没有危害(Brazil rabbits cannot stand the cold weather in the north so they cannot breed.)。

听力:持反驳论点。

① 现在养宠物的人不会交出他们的宠物,法律生效后,他们只是不能够再购买这些宠物的同类了。(it is only importing and selling new members are restricted, pet owners won’t be affected.);

② 这项法案所花费的钱比起治理生物危害所花的钱要少的多,而且这个钱花的更值得。(it’s worth it.)比如当地有一种蛇,对当地的物种构成威胁(destroyed many other species.)政府不得不花更多的钱去迁移这一物种(the cost to remove the python is even greater and the loss of other species cannot be compensated);

③ 虽然动物不长寿,但是它们能够传播疾病(transmit diseases)比如有一种兔子,就传播了疾病给当地的兔子,使当地99%的兔子受到危害(Brazil rabbits carries “m”virus and can be transmitted to other animals. 99% of local animals have died.)。

 

29. primary care doctors短缺问题

阅读:提出了三种可能原因

① 学费贵,学生loans难以pay off,而且primary care doctors的工资低

② Primary care doctors的workload大,high stress

③ 去医院的training太limited

听力反驳:

① 在national health center有学习资源。学生毕业后可去偏远地区practice,可cover loans,甚至可为学生提供scholarship

② 政府会培养有advanced degree的nurse,并且适度使他们分担primary care doctors的工作负荷

③ 机会不均的原因是资源分配不均,政府如果每三年就move资源到下一个医院就能解决这个问题

 

30. Ophir 位于哪个地区

阅读:Ophir 在南亚

① 贸易的货物和南亚的货物一样。

② 航行去地中海所需时间是一年半,从南亚去地中海。

③ 一些文字与南亚是一致的。

听力反驳:

① 古代的商品生产地来自不同区域,所以这些贸易货物可能只是来自于南亚的商品,在

Ophir被发现。

② 古代的航行船只与工具都非常的原始(primitive),很有可能很近的距离也需要很长的航行时间(一年或一年以上)。

③ 英国和澳大利亚也有文字是一致的,比方说dogs,但并没有证据显示二者有联系

 

 

 

独立写作:

1.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Competition between friends usually negatively impacts friendships.

解题思路:反驳题中观点

① Firstly, there is nothing wrong with healthy competition between friends.朋友间的良性竞争并不是件坏事。一般来说,积极的竞争(positive competition)对人们很多有好处:激励你更努力地工作,积极奋斗(motivating you to work harder and strive for more)。正如孔子所言:“三人行,必有我师焉。”(Friends are more beneficial who are better than you, one way or another);

② Furthermore, friends strengthen their bonds through competition. 竞争可以加固友谊。诚然,朋友间会彼此竞争,但也会彼此帮助击败其他竞争对手(friends also help each other to beat other competitors),这样会使友谊更加坚固。可举身边朋友的例子或者是运动员之间互相帮助的例子:跳水运动员等

③ 让步段:Trying to be better than your friends at everything might not be so healthy, though.比如:夹杂着愤怒和嫉妒的竞争会使友谊受到重创(a friendship could be severely damaged by competition, invariably mixed with rage and/or jealousy),而有时这些情绪又难以消化(too overwhelming to be swallowed)。若想保住友谊,保持良性竞争就非常重要and避免恶性竞争(unhealthy completion)。The right thing to do, then, is to keep competition positive, if possible at all.

 

2.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Visiting museums is the best way to learn about a country.

解题思路:选择同意。

① It appears to be routine(做……似乎是正常的) for travelers to visit museums when they step onto(走上……) a foreign land. As treasure houses boast(以……为豪) numerous valuable records of a country, they are without doubt worthy of admiration and respect from all viewers. By reading introductions to the exhibits, people can uncover more details about them, thus learning more about the culture and history of the country they are in. That's just what people would do during the process of active learning. As far as I am concerned, among all the available learning channels, visiting museums does indeed offer a valuable opportunity to learn about a country.

② First of all, there is no denying that paying a visit to a museum teaches people a great deal about a nation's past. 解释句:Touring around a history museum is just like going on a magical journey(奇幻旅程) through the ages. Such an unforgettable experience allows one to return to the remote past in person and witness what was happening. There is much to be learned and memorized. 举例论证:The world-renowned(世界知名的)Palace Museum of China, also known as the Forbidden City, is attracting hundreds of thousands of visitors each day. The very site served as(充当……)the home of 24 emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for more than 500 years. Over a million artefacts are on display in this museum. UNESCO(联合国教科文组织) put it on the list of the World Cultural Heritage Sites. The Forbidden City could be a very good place for people to learn and understand China's past. In fact, museums of this kind, like the British Museum, the Canadian War Museum and so forth, can be found in many major cities around the globe. Each of them presents a unique history of its nation.

③ Secondly, visiting museums can also provide people with ample knowledge(丰富的知识) about the present magnificence of a country(一个国家的现世辉煌). 解释句:Ranging from art and science to agriculture, museums truly cover a vast area. 举例论证:For instance, in science museums, demonstrations, interactive programs(互动项目) are adopted to(被采用) introduce important scientific achievements. Visitors are given the opportunity to probe deeper into(探索) the world of science and experience its marvels. Evidently(显然), this educational and meaningful tour will be a cherished memory(宝贵的记忆) for a long time. Museums of modern art are also worth a visit. With a large collection of paintings, folk art, sculptures, ceramics and metalwork, art galleries present colorful aspects of the country's cultures. Just like an open gate, museums invite people into a paradise of knowledge.

④ Admittedly, in addition to museum visits, there are also other ways to learn about a country. For example, reading books, local newspapers and magazines, watching news broadcasts on TV and seeing documentary films(记录片) could be some alternatives(替代方式). 打压:However, comparatively, visiting museums proves to be a more direct way.

⑤ To summarize, for foreign travelers, visiting museums can broaden their horizon and help them achieve better understanding of different cultures. Therefore, regardless of (不管,不顾)other ways to learn about a country, it is still recommended(被推荐) to set out(出发,启程) on diverse(不同的) museum tours.

 

3.The school has been funding for students to participate in different types of activities, but this year, since the lack of money, the school will fund one activity, which one do you think is the one the school should fund: sports, arts and volunteering.

解题思路:选择sports

① 投资体育设施(the investment in sports facilities)能够不仅给学生还给教职工(not only students but faculty)提供使用各种设施的便利(easy access to various activities),这对于处于压力下的(under huge pressure)的学生和老师来说是一个非常方便的放松机会。

② 体育馆的修建可以给学生更好的训练环境,如果学生能够参加相关比赛并取得不错的成绩,都是学校的荣誉,同时学校也有机会去承办一些体育活动(hold sports events),这样对于学校提升自己知名度(increase its popularity),可以吸引到更多投资或好的学生;

③ 所修建的体育设施可以对外开放,服务附近的居民,因此可以作为另一种谋利方式(can be regarded as a way to make extra profit),更可以缓解学习的经济负担(relieve the school's financial burden)。

 

4.Do you agree or disagree: Universities should spend more money on facilities (such as libraries, computer labs, and technology in general) than to spend more money on hiring famous teachers.

解题思路:选择同意

① 花钱在设施上和学生成绩提高联系紧密。(There is a convincing connection between the quality of teaching facilities and students’ grades.) 例子用的是实验课。花钱买实验设备就能让枯燥实验课变得有趣。

② 花钱在设施上有助于培养学生创造力。(Teachers will be able to plan and develop intriguing teaching methods if they can take advantage of the best teaching facilities.) 例子用的机器人。花钱买机器人可以鼓舞学生以后设计自己的机器人。

③ 好的有名气的老师流动性比较大,而设施是不动产,能够保证教学的持久性。

 

5.Do you agree or disagree: In the past, people were more friendly than they are today.

解题思路:选择同意

① 过去人们交流更频繁。(People in the past were more accessible and communicated more frequently.) 现代建筑和科技阻隔了人与人之间的沟通,人们因此更加不了解。可以举例说现在和几十年前人居所的不同。

② 现在的人们更关心经济利益。在过去,人们会更关心对方。(Human beings used to be more caring about others than about economic profit.) 现在社会越来越物质化(materialistic),把追求利益放在首位,所以不会去考虑对待别人的态度。

③ 过去人们更信任别人。(People in the past have more trust for others.)媒体中播报出的犯罪案件越来越多,人们潜意识(sub-consciously)里就不相信其他人,也没办法进行友好地交流。

 

6.What is the most useful action for people to help environment in their local community?

1)Plant trees and create parks;

2)Persuade local shops to stop providing plastic bags to customers;

3)Increase access to public transportation (such as buses and trains), thus reducing the automobiles on the road.

解题思路:选择3)

① Sure, people who advocate the increase of parks and trees may argue that this action would do a lot of good to the air quality, because for one thing photosynthesis of leaves can largely reduce the emission of carbon dioxide, which is viewed as the culprit of global warming; for another, the surface of leaves can also contribute to the absorption of dust and other pollutants in the air. (承认Parks和trees的作用)However, when we take a closer look at the air pollution, it is not difficult to conclude that this action would only make a minimal difference were an increasing number of private cars running on the road. Studies have shown that a tree can absorb 1.8 tons or so carbon dioxide per year, but the amount of exhaust fumes caused by vehicles can be more than three times the weight of the automobile. (数例)After doing the math, can you imagine without limiting the traffic volume, how many parks and trees should be planted in our community to cope with air pollution? The answer may be incredible and impossible. (转折,让步)

② Also, stopping using plastic bags in local shops can have minor impacts on the environment of our neighborhood. 虽然说这个action可以一定程度上(to some degree)缓解白色污染(white pollution),但是实际的情况是(the truth is),城市中的垃圾原本就是被倾倒或掩埋在(are supposed to be dumped or buried)偏远地区(rural and remote areas),另外,生产塑料袋的工厂往往都建远离社区的地方,所以即使禁止使用塑料袋,工厂降低生产,当地社区的环境也不会有直接的改变。而且,城市中的主要污染,即空气污染(major pollution, i.e., air pollution)不会得到任何缓解。

③ Finally, reducing traffic can help improve the air quality on a fundamental basis.(TS) Fewer automobiles on road means that less amount of fossil fuels will be consumed to generate energy, then less exhaust fume will be released into the air. (解释)The success of the odd-even license plate policy for cars implemented in Beijing during 2008 Olympic Games has proved that the air quality can be considerably improved in a short term.(举例) Besides, if the government encourage commuters to take public transport more frequently, (e.g., giving large discount for the price of tickets, executing on mandatory policy to limit the number of cars running on the road, or levy higher taxes on car owners, etc.)(细节) immediate effects can be exerted since we do not have to wait for a park to be established.(递进)

 

7.The university club want to help others,if you are a member of them, you only could undertake one project this year. which following would you prefer to choose?To help students at a nearby primary school with reading and mathematics;build house for people who cannot buy or rent;visit and assist the elderly people with daily tasks.

解题思路:选择to help students at a nearby primary school with reading and mathematics

(题目翻译:学校要组织一个俱乐部去帮助他人,你会选择以下哪一件事情?一个是去教附近小学的学生阅读和数学,一个是给买不起房子的人盖房子,还有一个是帮助老人做日常的一些工作)

①  教小学生阅读和数学可以培养我们的交流沟通能力(communication skills)和人际交往能力(the development of one’s interpersonal skills)。

② Not only can the students of primary school learn some knowledge about reading and mathematics, but also we can learn some knowledge which we have not known before.(在教授小学生的时候,我们也可以学到一些以前可能不知道的知识)。

③ 教小学生阅读和数学也可以培养我们的耐心(the character of patience),这对我们未来的工作,生活,学习都有好处。

 

8.The most important thing that the government should do to improve the health care is to clean the environment.

题型:绝对词  话题:政府类  解题方法:提出另外2~3种更好的解决方式

①  主题句:First of all, the government should pay more attention to ameliorate(改善) the poverty issue(贫困问题) in our country. 解释句/对比论证:Although a clean environment is an important condition of health care, there are however more and more people who do not have sufficient food in our society, which means those poor people do not take in enough nutrition(没有足够的成长). Therefore, they may not grow well and become sick easily. 结束句:That's why I am convinced that improving the poverty issue should be given more consideration by the government.

② 主题句:In addition, the government should take health-care education into account(考虑卫生保健教育). 解释句:The reason being, that teaching the public how to stave off viruses is also as significant as the clean environment problem. Since each disease has its unique feature, people have to learn how to quickly identify those diseases.举例论证: For example, AIDS is a common disease around the world, and this kind of virus has no connection with environment. Therefore, the government should educate the public that the best way to avoid this disease is to have safe sex. 结束句:There is no gainsaying (不可否认的是)that the government have to take health-care education far more seriously than helping clean the environment.

③ With the reasons above, I hold that the clean environment issues should not be put in the limelight(不应该备受瞩目). That is not to say of course that other points of view are completely without merit. 重申立场:However, I think the reasons which I have provided in favor of my viewpoint are much stronger.

 

9.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Taking a lot of time to make an important decision is often considered as a bad quality for a person. However, some people think that it is a good quality for a person.

解题思路:I agree with the statement that it is a good quality for a person to take a lot of time to make an important decision.

①  当做决定之前如果能有充裕的(plentiful)时间思考,就更加可能把所有因素(factors)考虑进去,从不同的角度分析所做决定的利弊(calculate risks from different angles),为可能发生的意外情况(the unpredictable things)以及产生的后果做好心理准备(be mentally prepared for the unknown consequences),于是更可能做出一个明智(wise)的决定。

②  匆忙间做出的决定往往只能看到事情的一面(one side),这样的决定很可能是基于(based on)次要因素(minor factor),而不是主要因素上(chief factor)。如果结果发现决定做错了(when it turns out that the decision made is wrong),那就要花更多的时间和精力(more time and energy)去弥补(make up),然而事前多花些时间可以做好多个应急预案(different contingency plans),从而让人更加resilient。

③  在行动前(before action)考虑更多,不仅能够保证(guarantee)事情的决定是明智的,而且还能提升行动时的效率(improve efficiency),就像作家在写作之前会花很长时间先列个提纲(outline),画家在作画之前会先反复很多次起个草(start with a sketch),这些刚开始的努力(initial efforts)会保证接下来工作的顺利进行,对最后能否成就一个伟大的作品直接相关(be related with the making or breaking the final outcome)。

 

10.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is difficult for teachers to be both popular (students like them) and effective to help students learning.

解题思路:【Disagree】:

① At first glance,being popular contradicts with the effectiveness of teaching.因为老师们想要popular among students,往往都不会太严格(strict)。It is understandable that a student tend to keep teachers at arm’s length(跟老师保持距离)if their teacher keeps a poker face all day long and sets strict rules in class.所以反过来说如果老师为了please students at the expense of being serious,那么the boundary between students and the teacher may be  blurred.因此no wonder会有人质疑(suspect)学生一旦跟老师熟悉起来,那么他们上课时可能就不会把老师的要求当回事儿(take… seriously)这自然就会影响老师的正常教学也会影响学生的学习质量。However, when we take a closer look at this issue, 会发现想要同时做到popular和effectively conduct class并不是那么困难。

② 首先,老师们在设计自己的课堂的时候要充分结合学生的兴趣,将看似枯燥的学术知识(academic knowledge)用新颖(novel)有趣的方式表现出来。比如通过视频技术来给学生演示细胞发育成生命体的过程;让学生动手设计实验,自己去验证自己的想法,在讲解比较枯燥的数学公式时,题目的难度要设计的有针对性,不能一下子就难住学生而导致学生太挫败(frustrated),这样能让学生感受到学习的乐趣,老师也自然能在gain popularity的同时有效地进行了教学。

③ 其次,合理的课堂管理规则也可以让老师同时实现这两个目标。让学生多参与就是一种非常好的方法。比如老师在第一次上课时就让学生一起讨论并制定课堂好规则,跟学生确定好惩罚与奖励措施,并且可以给学生权利来自我管理。这样学生一方面能够感受到自己被尊重被重视,所以自然就会对老师更加尊敬,另外老师的课堂目标也能很容易地实现。

 

11.Providing the Internet access is as important as other services, like building roads, so the government should provide it at no cost.

解题思路:Disagree:

①  开头段:我不认为政府应该免费提供互联网,因为此建议有违公平原则,而且互联网和其他传统基础服务相比还没有那么紧要。(I cannot support the argument that government should be responsible for providing Internet service at no cost. Access to the Internet is simply not as critical as other traditional infrastructure needs.)

②  中间段1:主题句,政府补贴的免费互联网服务有违公平原则。(Government subsidized free Internet is a breach of fairness principle.)论证:有些人比其他人使用更多的互联网,因此这一政策只对有些人有好处,对那些没那么经常使用互联网的人有坏处。举例,IT人士可能会24小时使用互联网,但是小孩可能很少使用。(IT professionals may use internet on a 24 twenty-four hour basis in contrast to young kids who may barely touch the computer.)

③  中间段2:访问互联网和其他关键基础设施相比,没那么重要。(The assumption that the ability to access the Internet is synonymous with the right to freedom and as important as other infrastructure services is incorrect.)论证:对人们生活非常重要的公共服务很少,只有水,食物和电力等。(There are a few infrastructure services that are essential to people's lives such as water, food and electricity.)举例,想象一个病人在急救室,医生必须有电才能做手术。但是同样的医生如果是参加网络医学会议仅仅是更有帮助,而非必须。(The doctor has to have electricity in order to conduct the surgery. But it is only helpful but not necessary for the same doctor to participate in online medical conferences.)

 

12. Nowadays students do many things like surfing the Internet, listening to music when they are learning. Do you agree or disagree that doing other things impose bad effect on learning?

解题思路:Agree:

①  学习的时候听音乐可以帮助我们提高学习效率。(The practice of engaging in amusement while studying often improves the overall efficiency.)论证:实验证明,巴洛克音乐中60拍的高频音乐可以快速完成作业,学习速度将提高2—10倍。

②  学习的时候娱乐可以放松身心。(Entertainment activities enable us to be relaxed when we are studying.)论证:从而有利于激发我们的创造力(It favorable for us to inspire creativity.)

③  学习的时候娱乐可以拓宽思维。(When we are involved in these recreation, the activities can put us in a favorable position in thinking.)论证:可以看到别人的观点,从而获得解决问题的灵感。

 

13.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for the government to spend more money on art museums and music performance centers than on recreational facilities(like playgrounds, public swimming pool).(政府类 2015.11.28)

解题思路:agree

① Art museums and music performance centers可以给当地政府带来持续稳定且数目可观的收入(a source of steady and considerable income)。解释:这些场地可以用来举办各类艺术展和明星演唱会, which is attractive to not only local residents but also tourists and fans from other places.

② 比起public recreational facilities, art museums and music performance centers能够带来更多的就业岗位(employment positions)。解释:这些场馆需要长期的管理和工作人员(long-term staffs to manage and maintain)。并且,展览和演唱会等活动的不断举办也会促进相关产业的发展(stimulate the development of relevant industries)。

③ 让步:诚然,constructing recreational facilities is also beneficial to citizens, 比如,确实public swimming pools and playgrounds provide easy access for citizens to participate in sport activities and to relax with a lower price。但是art museum and music centers benefit both the public and the government。并且,人们在看exhibition 和 music performance的时候不仅也可以得到很好的放松,还能acquire more cultural knowledge, improve their aesthetic appreciation。

 

14.Many university students are encouraged to study in those majors, which have an increase of job growth (more needed in the job market) like Science, Technology, Engineering, Math. What are your opinion about to choose those majors instead of what they are interested in? (教育类 利弊分析2016.11.05 )

解题思路:选择自己感兴趣的

① Interest can help students achieve greater success in their area. 解释:当一个人的专业是其兴趣与未来职业规划的结合体时(a combination of interest and future career plan),这无疑会促使一个人去花比别人更多的时间和努力去钻研自己的专业,那么即便这个专业不是one of the hottest major,学生仍有可能在该领域内获得很好的发展。并且这个学生会因为能够自己感兴趣的事情而感到快乐。(对比论证),相反情况,被迫使选择自己不感兴趣的专业,那么学生很可能一味地很纠结苦恼,并且无法完全沉浸在学习中。最终,即便这些学生学则的时hot major,但不能用心学习,不能在该领域去努力钻也,同样时无法得到好的未来发展的,并且不快乐。

② If students choose their interested majors by heart, the social competition tends to be naturally balanced. 解释:如果每个人都一味的去追逐所谓的热门专业,那么该领域的竞争必然会急剧加大(the competition in this major or area must increase dramatically)。这样发展下去(If so,),即便这是个社会需求量大的专业,也会因为人才过多而变得很难找到工作(even if it is a major in demand, it will become highly difficult for graduates to find job due to the superabundant job seekers)。

③ 让步:虽然说choosing a hot major seems guarantee a student a more stable future career development, which can be understood that the student might at least find a job for a living (最起码能找到一份谋生的工作). Nonetheless, 个人兴趣对于未来发展的不可忽视的影响(The unignorable influence of personal interest on future development),以及社会大环境的不断变化都应该被更多的考虑在大学专业的选择中。

 

15.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Your job has a large effect on your overall happiness than social life does.(工作类 利弊分析2016.09.24)

解题思路:不同意,social life影响更大

① Social life involves more kinds and forms of activities and more aspects of personal life。 解释:工作只是个人生活的一个组成元素,往往最主要目的是为了生存。而social life会涉及到生活的方方面面(every aspect of life),并且有形式多样的活动(various activities,banquets, parties, clubs, trips, games等等)。

② Social life中我们可以更放松。解释:工作中需要follow so many strict rules and regulations, 而social life可以自由表达自己的个性(personality),更容易让我们开心。

③ Social life可以让我们得到真正的情感(real relationships),比如友情、爱情。解释:工作中我们面对的只是同事和客户(colleagues and clients),who mainly have interest relation with each other。而在social life中,各类活动能够帮助对别人有更深入的接触和了解,找到志同道合的朋友(friends in the same camp/ like-minded friends),甚至是灵魂的伴侣(soul mate)。

 

16.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Rather than help their children do school work, parents should encourage their children to do work independently. (教育类 利弊分析 2017.02.26)

解题思路:选择同意,encourage children to do work independently好。

① Doing school work independently is a good opportunity to review what students have learned in class. 解释:without the help of parents, children为了完成作业,不得不自己亲自去再次复习回忆学校课堂里学习的理论(theories)、方法(methods)、公式(formulae)、例子(examples)等内容,甚至在父母的鼓励下,能够主动的去整理所学知识(organize what they have learned)。

② Children can be more independently overall. 解释:习惯了独立学习之后(after being used to studying by their own),孩子渐渐地就会懂得遇到问题时(run up against roadblocks)主动寻求(seek for)解决问题的方法,而不是(instead of)依赖于别人的帮助(rely on the help from others)。

③ 让步段:some may stress that assisting children with their homework is far different from simply offer help for study. Actually, this is the precious parent-child time(亲子时间) for busy parents to get closer to children and know how children perform in school. The children perhaps are willing to share some little secrets deep in heart. Sounds sweet, right? However, the truth would possibly be far from(远非,完全不) sweet. After wrestling with(努力克服,全力对付) all sorts of thorny problems at workplace, the exhausted parents possibly tend to be out of patience, especially when they find that their children even fail to solve an easy question. These impatient adults are likely to lose their temper and take their anger on the innocent children.

 

17.Your university want to improve the quality of students’ life in the dormitory. Which would you prefer? (教育类,三选一,2016.09.25)

- Quiet place for study

- Building exercise room for students to keep physical well-being

- Space for entertainment (like watching movies)

解题思路:选择第一个,quiet place for study

① 乍一看(at first glance),健身房可以让学生去锻炼肌肉(strengthen their muscles),保持体型(maintain in good shape),但是,学校完全没有必要去做这些,因为在操场上慢跑或围着学校跑步不仅仅可以让学生得到同样的锻炼,还可以给他们一个机会去亲近大自然(provide an opportunity to get closer to the nature)。另外宿舍中的健身房的设施也不会像学校里sports center的健身设施那样professional,这就意味着学生在自己宿舍也能做做俯卧撑(push-ups)或哑铃操(dumbbell exercise),所以对我来说,健身房不是个好的选择。

② 娱乐场所同样也不是我的选择(won’t be on my lists of priority),有人说在离宿舍很近的地方能看一场电影非常好,因为电影结束可以直接回屋睡觉,但是对于我来说,如果要看电影的话我更看重的是电影的视觉声觉效果(acoustic and visual effects),所以我宁愿(I’d rather do)去电影院,而且学校里很难放映那些大片(sensational movies),所以我还是觉得躺在床上用电脑看那些经典电影会更好(it seems better for me to lie in my bed with earphones on to catch up those classics on my computer screen)。

③ However, the quiet place for study is where I yearn most for. I’m fed up with(忍不了) queuing up in early morning and waiting outside the library for the doors to open(早晨在图书馆外面排队等着开门); especially when the final exams are around the corner(近在眼前), hardly can I find a seat in the library. I’m also hoping that one day I could have a place to stay up late to get my projects done(完成作业), without going out of my way to step out, rush for an all-night café in the cold winter, and to pay for several cups of coffee and feeling worn out when returning back to the dorm. Of course, neither an exercise nor entertainment room can be a substitute for a quiet place in the dormitory building which can offer us a place to read books and study with ease(轻松,方便). Students can thus achieve more in terms of academic performance。

 

18.Which one is the most important for teacher of high school? (教育类,三选一,2015.10.31)

-the ability to help students plan for their future;

-the ability to find the students who need the most help and to give that help;

-the ability to encourage students to learn on their own outside of the classroom.

解题思路:选择第二个,the ability to find the students who need the most help and give that help

① 绝大多数高中生很难自己找到自身的问题(The vast majority of high school students have trouble finding out their own problems on study.)。因为他们往往还不够心智成熟(due to immature mentality),不能够去主动发现自己的学习上的关键问题和需求(key issues and needs)。即便发现了问题(even if the problems can be found out on their own),因为缺乏经验(lack of experience),也不一定能及时找到方法去解决(timely and effective solutions might not come out easily)。而且高中生往往不好意思去展示自己的薄弱之处(embarrassed to show their weakness),也就不会主动向老师请教(turn to the teachers for help and advice )。所以,老师能够及时发现需要帮助的学生并给与有效帮助是非常必要的。

② 老师主动给有需要的学生提供帮助能够提高学生的学习兴趣和信心(improve students’ learning interest and confidence)。得到老师热心主动的帮助,学生会觉得备受关怀和鼓舞(With the help of the teacher, the students will feel being concern and encouraged), 尤其对于需要帮助的学生,可以从新燃起学习的希望和热情(renewing their hope and enthusiasm on study, especially for those who need most help)。

③ 让步段:诚然,学生对未来需要有一个好的规划,但是对于高中生而言,最直接需要考虑的未来就是高考或者说是大学的选择(what they need to consider first about their future is to perform well in the college entrance exam, which determines their choice of college)。这个目标很明确(a clear goal),并且本质(essence)还是要获得好的学习成绩(achieve good scores),那么仍然是需要老师给予帮助。独立学习能力也确实是一个重要的品质,但是这个完全可以在大学四年的学习中得到更好更自由的发展,而对于并不足够成熟的高中生(immature high school students),自己独立学习很容易走弯路(it makes students take a tortuous road to study by themselves),影响学习效率(decreasing study efficiency)。

 

19.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Spending too much time on watching sports on TV and following your favorite team would have a bad effect on your life.

解题思路:花过多时间关注体育会影响生活

① 对体育的沉迷会破坏家庭和谐(the addition to sports is detrimental to family harmony)。解释:因为家理应是一个(family is supposed to be a place where members care about each other by...)大家通过倾听、表达、互助的方式来关心彼此的地方,而过分关注体育无疑会剥夺本属于家庭成员共有的“品质时间”(the obsession with sports would definitely deprive people of “quality time”)。举例论证

② 过分关注体育节目和体育队伍会影响身体健康(physical condition would be negatively affected by excessive attention to sports on TV as well as to sports teams)。解释:沉迷在某件事情上通常是要付出代价的(fascination with something often comes at a cost.)。人们追求体育明星、体育赛事,是以牺牲休息和锻炼的时间作为代价的(people go after sports stars and sports events at the sacrifice of losing opportunities to rest or exercise.)。举例论证

③ 让步:看体育节目和关注喜爱的体育队伍确实会给人带来一些好处。比如在社交场合(social occasions),体育可以成为新朋友间共同的谈资(sports can make an ideal topic among new friends),有利于人际交往。然而,如果我们无法平衡时间(if we fail to manage our time),这样的举动就会占用(encroach)工作、锻炼和与家人沟通的时间了。

 

20.Some people prefer to buy technological devices as soon as they are available to the public. Others prefer to wait until many people have used them. Which do you prefer?

解题思路:等待很多人用了之后再买

① 等一款设备的缺陷得到修正(its deficiencies get fixed)之后再购买比较明智。解释:因为当一款新的科技设备面世的时候(a new technological device is available to the public for the first time),它可能有一些不明显但不完美的地方(there may be several unnoticed imperfections about it)。随着越来越多的使用者(the growing number of users)把问题汇报给制造商,后续的产品版本一定会在质量上超越最初的产品(the following versions are bound to surpass the original ones in terms of quality)。举例论证

② 一款新发布的产品价格总是虚高(the price of a newly launched technological device often comes with bubbles)。解释:根据供求关系(the law of supply and demand),当一款流行的产品刚刚问世时(is firstly brought to the market),是供不应求的(the supply falls short of demand),这会导致价格虚高(result in a higher price than its real value)。但过了一段时间,价格就会回归理性(the price will return to a reasonable level)。举例论证

③ 让步:如果购买了最新的产品确实可以先于其他人体验到科技带来的喜悦(enjoy the latest technology)。但是,过一段时间体验会更好,因为很多不完美的地方都会被修复(lots of deficiencies will be fixed)。另外,现代科技更新很快(modern technological devices are iterating rapidly),买最新的设备无异于浪费金钱(is no different to wasting money)。

 

21.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is important for everyone to know about what is happening around the world even though the events have not affected our daily lives.

解题思路:同意

① 了解全球新闻有助于他们的全面发展(is beneficial for their overall development)。解释:虽然一些新闻与他们的生活没有任何关系,但是获取新闻的过程真的是一种能让他们长知识的经历(the process of gaining them can be a real eye-opening experience),不但开阔视野(broaden one’s horizon),而且也能加深对这个世界的了解(deepen one’s understanding of the world)。举例论证

② 了解世界大事可以让他们更好地做出判断(grasping worldwide events allows them to make better decisions)。解释:因为表面上无关的事情有可能以迂回的方式影响我们的生活(a seemingly irrelevant event is likely to have an impact on our lives in a roundabout way)。一个明智的决策一定是在考虑了各种有价值的信息基础上作出的。举例论证

③ 让步:诚然,把时间花在浩瀚如烟海的信息上将会使我们从本职工作中分心(spending time on a sea of information would distract us from doing what we should do)。但是,信息的价值再怎么高估都不为过(the value of information cannot be overestimated)。因此,我们可以利用闲暇时间去浏览新闻(take advantage of leisure time to browse news)。同时,也需要筛选出那些对我们有意义的新闻(select the news that is meaningful to us)。

22.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? As modern life becomes more complex, it is essential for young people to have the ability to plan and organize.

解题思路:同意

① 计划能力让我们不会在无尽的工作中迷失自我(the ability to plan keeps us from losing ourselves in endless tasks)。解释:众所周知, 现在的年轻人要处理和应对的工作量(far greater number of tasks)是过去的人无法想象的。如果一个人没有能力去优化(optimize)其时间和精力,那么就会淹没在大量的事物中(he would drown in tons of jobs),因为事情总是不断涌现出来(things keep popping out all the time)。举例论证

② 组织能力可以让年轻人更好地利用资源帮他们实现目标(make better use of accessible resources to help them achieve goals)。解释:在现代社会,如果缺乏资源,比如社会关系、资金或信息,一个人无法成就任何事情。更为重要的是,这些资源只有被人合理地整合在一起的时候才会发挥效用(these resources only work when being integrated together in a proper way)。举例论证

③ 让步:确实,年轻人同时也应该拥有其他重要的能力,比如自我表达能力、结交新朋友的能力,或者他人情感共鸣的能力(empathize with others)。但是,计划和组织能力在年轻人的生活和工作中扮演着根本性的角色,在此能力上建立起其他能力(the two essential abilities are like the cornerstone on which other abilities are built)。

 

25. In order to succeed,it is better to be like to others rather than different from everybody else.

解题思路:不同意

① 在人群中变得不一样这是很重要的一件事,假如一个人他想要成功他就要变得和别人不一样,因为这样可以带来独立的思考以及创造性的想法。(It is more important to be unique and separate yourself from the crowd. If a person always tries to fit in then they will never truly find success, because success requires new and independent ideas and imitating others will impede creative ideas.)对比论证:如果比尔盖茨都和其他人一样,那就不会有他今天如此的成功了。(When Bill Gates first started Microsoft he had a vision that the personal computer would change the face of technology. It was a unique idea which no other person had ever imagined before.)

② 当我们谈到工作的时候,为了有机会得到提升我们可能要有些不同于他人的想法以及克服不同于他人的压力。(When it comes to job, in order to achieve a promotion, we usually need to make a critical decision and overcome a big pressure which others may not able to do.)解释说明:If you always do your work quietly then you will never be noticed by your superiors. The better tactic is to stand out and let your presence be known to those around.举例论证:假如你有一些different and strange ideas不同于其他人,你一定要克服压力勇敢的表达出和别人的不同,这样才能set you apart from your colleagues.

③ 在追求更深的学业上,即使是和别人不同一个人也要坚持他的目标。(As for pursuing the further education development, it is crucial for a person to insist more on his or her goal, which differs from others a lot.)举例论证:我的一个朋友want to get a PHD position abroad,但是他的英语不是很好,在和其他一些小伙伴一起学习的时候,别人慢慢的已经放弃了,但他并没有像其他人一样,他坚持下来了最终取得了成功。

 

26. It is a waste of money for governments to fund space travel and space exploration.

解题思路:同意

① 政府应该把钱投在教育上,因为这不仅符合大多数人的利益,而且可以为国家发展培养人才。(Government should spend money on education, because this practice not only conforms to the interests of the majorities but also cultivate various talents for the successful development of our country.)解释论证:首先肯定教育的重要性(The importance of education to the development of a nation can never be exaggerated.)投资在教育(investing in education)以此来为国家培养人才,才是国家未来得以发展的保障。

② 政府应该把钱投在经济上,因为经济的发展可以提高全民的生活水平,也可以提升国家的政治地位。(Secondly, government should invest money in economic development, since the boom of economy will improve the living standard of the public as well as the raise the political status in the world.)对比论证:相比于把钱投入在太空旅游和太空探险,政府更应该把钱投入在经济发展上,这比投入在太空旅游上更重要。

因果论证:因为经济发展可以带来人们生活水平的提高(improve the living standard of the public),从而能让人们感到幸福,并且能够确保社会稳定(social stability),同时经济得以发展也能够提升国家在国际社会上的政治地位。

③ 让步段:不可否认,虽然投资发展太空旅游和太空探索有许多好处,诸如能够为我们需找新能源或是为人类找寻一个更适合居住的住所,但是相比于我们的观点,这些优势看似暗淡。(Admittedly, there are certain benefits of investing money in space exploration, such as developing new energy source and even finding an alternative home for human beings. However, compared with the reasons provided for our viewpoint, these advantages seem lackluster.)政府应该把投资放在解决更为紧迫的问题上。(Governmental investment should be devoted to solving more pressing issues such as education and economy.)

 

27. When parents cannot afford time to accompany with their children, they could choose to send their children to child-care center where many children are cared together, or they could send their children to an individual caregiver. Which one is better?

解题思路:send their children to child-care center:

① 选择托儿所(using a quality child-care center)可以帮家庭省很多的钱(save a valuable portion of money),因为托儿所的费用要符合当地经济水平(the fees demanded by most child-care center have to be consistent with the level of average income in the area),而如果是给一个育婴师,费用可能很贵。

② 把孩子送到托儿所比起给一个育婴师来说对孩子的认知能力发展更好。(will be better at cognitive skills as opposed to the child brought up by an individual caregiver)

③ 把孩子送到托儿所可以给孩子一个机会同其他的小伙伴交流(have an opportunity to communicate with others),而不是和育婴师一起在家看电视而不说一句话。(the individual caregiver had not spoken to child but watched television together for the whole day)

 

28. Do you agree or disagree the most effective way for governments to encourage energy conservation is to increase the price of gasoline and electricity?

解题思路:同意

① 人们对他们的能源消耗有所限制(By increasing these prices, people would be force to ration their energy consumption.)举例论证:他们会关小暖气,关掉不需要的灯,尽可能使用公共交通出行。(In order to save on bills each months, they would turn down the heating, turn off unnecessary lights, and use public transportation when possible.)

② 另外一个好处就是人们会更关注替代型,环保型的能源。(There would be an increased emphasis on alternative, more environmentally-friendly sources of energy.)举例论证:汽油型汽车耗油较大,人们会更愿意去使用混合动力汽车或者生物燃料汽车。(If people knew that gasoline-powered car was very expensive to run, they would be more likely to consider purchasing a hybrid vehicle or a bio-fuel vehicle.)

③ 在清洁能源上会有更多公众资金的支持。(There would also be more support for public

investment in clean sources of energy.)举例论证:公众会自己出资安装家庭太阳能

板或者风车。(Individuals may even take private measures by installing solar panels

or windmills on their properties.)

 

29. Agree or disagree: students do reading by their own is as important as or more important than the reading teachers assigned.

解题思路:不同意

① 巩固课堂知识(By doing it according to instructions from teachers, students can develop their reading skills to feed the academic minds.)

② 帮助自制力不好的学生提高阅读水平(It is important that teachers should give reading tasks in order that students, who prefer watching TV to reading at home, can at least learn to read to reach an expected level.)

③ 现在的教育注重学科的多样性(diversity),按照老师布置的任务阅读可以让学生more reading more extensively for increased knowledge in a wide range of disciplines. 从而students are sure to gain more confidence and self-esteem, which is part of the fruits of education that can lead to an intelligent lifestyle.

 

30. Which do you prefer? An interesting and challenging job with less vacation or a job with more vacation time but less fun.

解题思路: More vacation time can provide people more opportunities to enjoy their mental lives.

① 人们有更多机会体验不同事物(First of all, people can have the chances to experience a lot of different things at their vacation time. An increasing number of people begin to have a distant trip in their vacations. It will be an unforgettable and special experience for me to have a close contact with the nature and learn more about the local culture and history of that region, which can expand my horizons and knowledge.)

② 在工作之前完全的休息好非常重要(In addition, there is a growing aware about how important it is to get full-relaxed before we go back to work. Besides doing sports, listening to music, watching movies or doing some other things are all good forms of relaxation. Those can refresh our mind from long-time brain work so that we can work even more efficiently and actively after the vacations.)

③ 假期时光也能更好地帮助我们经营家庭(Finally, another equally crucial aspect is that more holiday time are needed for us to reunite with our families. The working people really need to have more time to communicate with their families, so a long vacation time is required.)

 

                             

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