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2018年11月托福考试独立写作预测

时间:2018-11-05 14:45来源:朗阁小编作者:Judy
2018年11月托福考试独立写作预测 独立写作 1. Many people spend too much money on pets even though there are better uses of money. Do you agree or disagree this opinion? 解题思路:Agree ① 动物可以给人们带来很多乐
  2018年11月托福考试独立写作预测
 
  独立写作
 
  1. Many people spend too much money on pets even though there are better uses of money. Do you agree or disagree this opinion?
 
  解题思路:Agree
 
  ① 动物可以给人们带来很多乐趣,当人们处在困难时期,动物可以给我们心理上的支持(There is no doubt that pets give people pleasure. They often provide part of the psychological support network that helps people get through difficult times in their lives.)举例论证:此处可以列举dog和cat陪伴人们的例子。引用论证:(“There is no psychiatrist in the world like a puppy licking your face.” says Ben Williams.)。
 
  ② 动物可以帮助主人保持运动(pets will help the owners to keep exercises.)举例论证:以dogs喜欢散步为例:Such as dogs, it can be great companions and will happily go out for walks, at times even urging you for a walk, when you are too tired, thereby keeping you active and fit. Other activities related to pets like feeding, bathing, playing and cleaning are also good ways to exercise.
 
  ③ 和动物一起长大的孩子更有同情心(children growing up with pets develop more empathy.)解释原因:This could be because children view animals as peers and understand them better than adults. 将动物和人对孩子的影响作比较:They learn to read animals' body language, and unlike adults, animals hardly pretend or play psychological games.
 
  2. Do you agree or disagree: In the past, people were more friendly than they are today.
 
  分析:这道题是一个事实类题型。此类题型,同意不同意都可以写。审题思路从“原因/理由”出发,解释是什么原因导致该事实现象。
 
  以下是笔者给出参考:
 
  立场:agree
 
  (1) 社会经济不断发展,人们的生活节奏很快很忙碌,疏于与人有好地沟通交流。With the constantly rapid development of social economy, life rhythm, especially in urban area, is fast, depriving the interpersonal communication among individuals. 许多人因此在日常生活中抱怨生活的冷漠。Cold is the feeling that many people are experiencing and complaining about in daily life.
 
  (2) 电子设备的不断发展,手机电脑等设备占据着人们的大量时间,即便是闲暇时间。游戏和娱乐应用软件是年轻人沉迷,腐蚀着年轻人的生活,使得他们对现实周围非常的漠不关心,更不要说对他人友好。Using electronic devices, such as smart phones and computers, takes over considerable amount of time, even leisure time. Games and entertainment applications addict young people, corroding their life and making them indifferent to real surroundings, let along to show friendliness to others.
 
  (3) 过去几十年,由于特殊政策(single-child policy),使得几代人中国人(several generations in China)都是独生子女。他们的生长环境(growth environment and conditions)使他们以自我为中心(self-centered),只关注自己的想法和利益,使得老一辈人感受到了年轻人的自私和冷漠。
 
  Disagree
 
  (1) 社会的教育的普及和教育程度的逐渐提高,教育使人们更加细心,更懂得在意他人的想法,从而使得现代人越来越友好。The popularization and degree of education keep rising, with which people know the importance of caring more about what others think and thus being increasingly warm, kind and supporting.
 
  (2) 通讯软件的普及和网络的覆盖,促进了人们的交流,人与人之间愈发友善. The popularization of communication applications and the coverage of Internet have facilitated better communication and interaction among people from different backgrounds. The more idea exchanging, the greater friendliness people are of.
 
  全球化促使人们语言的运用能力和对于世界落后地区的关注不断提高,越来越的的组织机构和志愿者们投入到对有需要的人的帮助支援活动之中。Globalization has promoted people’s ability of different language using and has improved the attention to backward areas. Thus, more organizations and volunteers are increasingly involved in helping people in need, leaving countless affecting and heart-warming moments.
 
  3.Do you agree or disagree the following statement?
 
  The more money a man has, them more money he should give away to charities.
 
  解题思路:Disagree
 
  ① 富人(the wealthy)有权利自己安排自己的财富(have their own right to arrange their possessions),因为那是他们自己通过努力挣来的,他们没有必要为贫富差距承担后果(are not responsible for the gap between the rich and the poor),另外他们已经缴纳很高的税额给the authorities, who should bear the burdens to handle this tough problem。
 
  ② 做慈善可能会pose a threat to富人自己的生活甚至市场的正常运转,因为做慈善对于他们来说并不是一个直接的利益来源(direct profit source),但是会影响到自己的生活质量,对于一些大企业家(entrepreneurs)来说,做慈善还可能会影响到公司的运转及员工的福利体系(the operation of their business and employee benefits),从而影响到大家工作的积极性。
 
  ③ 就算是帮助穷人,富人们也不一定非要把钱捐到慈善机构(do not have to donate their money to charity organizations, even if deciding to help people in need),因为有些慈善机构可能不会make full use of the money甚至会do things illegally,所以不如直接把钱给需要帮助的人。
 
  4.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Getting advice from friends who are older than you is more valuable than getting advice from friends your same age.
 
  解题思路:同意
 
  ① The friends who are older than you can teach you many principles and rules because the majority of them have received more education than you.年长的人可以教你很多道理,因为他们中的大多数都受的教育比你多。所以他们会有更多专业的知识(professional knowledge)来帮你分析解决问题;然而你的同龄人的知识面可能跟你差不多,因此有些问题无法解决。比如如果你想买车,你的同龄人更多的可能会从外观(appearance)来给你建议,而比你年长的人很可能从性能(function)材料(material)发动机(engine)等方面给你更专业的建议。
 
  ② The friends who are older than you can strike your chord deeply in mind because they have more similar experiences like you who want to find a solution when you are in the confusion or dillema. 比你年长的人在你迷茫困惑,特别想要找到出路时,总能引发你的共鸣。举例子可举选择大学、选择专业。
 
  ③ The friends who are older than you can help you grow mature because they have learnt how to face impulsion in your age. 年长的朋友可以帮助你成熟起来,因为他们已经学会了如何在你这个年纪面对冲动的心态。比如课上因为误会被老师批评(being criticized by teacher because of some misunderstanding),如果是同龄的朋友,很可能跟你一起来咒骂(curse)老师或做出其他冲动的事(impulsively),但是年龄更长一些的人可能会帮你分析老师的想法,然后帮你建立正确的态度(establish correct attitude and value)。
 
  5.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
 
  Your job has a large effect on your overall happiness than social life does.
 
  解题思路:不同意
 
  ① Social life 可选择的特别多(a variety of social activities),包括travelling, parties, clubs, ball,这些活动更容易让人好好享受生活(enjoy the best life has to offer)。而每个人一般只做一份工作,生活被限制在(be confined to)工作中,很单调(dry and dull)
 
  ② 通过social life, 我们可以strengthen the bonds and make new friends。这些活动给我们提供很多的机会,可以遇到跟我们志同道合人(people with similar interests),也可以给我们提供和老朋友叙旧的好机会(catch up),因此我们的生活会变得更加开心。而工作中我们每天遇到的都是一样的同事(workmates),只会聊工作上的事情,而且需要迎合(cater to)上司(supervisor)和客户,很tedious。
 
  ③ 工作中需要follow so many strict rules and regulations,而social life可以自由表达自己的个性(personality),更容易让我们开心。以会计为例,在日常工作中(daily work),不管是做财务报表(financial statements)或者是做税表(file tax return),都需要严格遵循tax law and financial regulations,因此每天都在重复工作(rework), 毫无乐趣可言。
 
  4. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The government should offer internet access to all of citizens at no cost.
 
  解题思路:同意
 
  开头段:同意政府应该免费给公众提供互联网接入服务。(话题引入+他人观点+明确立场+过渡)
 
  With the advent of information age, the Internet has profoundly influenced every aspect in modern people’s life. Under such a background, how does the government play its role? Should the government offer Internet access to citizens at no cost? These questions trigger a heated debate in society. From my perspective, the Internet access, like other important public services, is supposed to be available to the public free of charge. I am going to elaborate(阐述) my viewpoint in the following paragraphs. (80 words)
 
  中间段1:免费政策能让更多的人都能享受到基于互联网的公共服务。(主题句+解释句+举例论证)
 
  Firstly, charge-free strategy allows more people to enjoy internet-based public services. Under the encouragement of cost-free policy, an increasingly number of people are willing to get access to the Internet and then benefit from government services optimized by the Internet. For example, in my country, people used to have real difficulty in buying train tickets especially during holiday seasons. In order to successfully buy the tickets, they had to wait in line in poorly ventilated place(空气流通极差的地方) for hours. But now, things have changed a lot. They book tickets online very quickly and use their ID card to check in at the train station. (103 words)
 
  中间段2:互联网免费策略可以刺激经济发展。(主题句+解释句+因果论证)
 
  Secondly, the economy will be stimulated attributed to(由于) free Internet access. Once the government makes the Internet access available to the public free of charge, it can be estimated that e-commerce will grow in leaps and bounds.(电子商务将实现跨越式的发展) More people will choose to start up business (创业)online and a great many job opportunities will be created, which also give impetus to(给予动力=give motivation to) the development of relevant industries such as logistics(物流). The success of Alibaba perfectly mirrors the positive impacts of the Internet on the economy.(阿里巴巴的成功完美地反映了互联网对经济的积极影响。) If the government offer free Internet access to all citizens, there will be more enterprises like Alibaba emerging one after another. (104 words)
 
  让步段:政府免费提供互联网接入也会给财政预算带来很多压力,毕竟网络建设是大型基础设施建设,但是政府可以从其他地方把这部分收入弥补回来,比如向利用互联网开店的商家收税。(承认漏洞+堵漏)
 
  Of course, we have to admit that free Internet access will bring tremendous pressure on government budget. After all, the construction of network, similar to building other major infrastructure(基础设施), is a huge project that consumes intensive labor and funds(消耗密集的劳动力和资金). However, the government can cover the expenditure(可以弥补这部分开支) via other ways including levying a tax on profitable internet-based business.(对盈利的互联网商业征税) (57 words)
 
  结尾:重申观点+归纳理由+升华主题
 
  In conclusion, making the Internet access free of charge is a valuable and far-reaching(深远的,意义重大的) effort for the government. In tide of the third industrial revolution in human history(在人类历史上的第三次工业革命浪潮中) brought by the Internet, the government should play a greater role in leading its people to embrace this new age. (48 words)
 
  5. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? When you have been friends with someone for a long time, it is important to continue your friendship with that person even if he or she does something you do not like.
 
  在答题时,考生们要注意题干中的几个关键词“老友”(for a long time),“做了你不喜欢的事”(does something you do not like),在这种条件下讨论是否还要继续友谊。在写作中要注意带入这些关键词。以下是笔者从同意continue the friendship完成的角度给出的几个Sample paragraphs:
 
  First off, long-term friendship means the tolerance for drawbacks. Obviously,the reason why two different people become friends lies in their same interest, personality, attitudes, value and outlook towards the life and the world. But this does not mean that no conflicts happen. Even the closest couple will get pissed off when meeting disagreements; let’s say, one likes conservative clothing, but the other likes mini-skirt. So even if your friend does something you dislike, that doesn't shake the foundation of your friendship. I have a friend whose room always looks like a pigsty, and every time I step into his room, hardly can I bear the smell from his soiled clothes piled up in his sofa. But this won’t be a barrier in our friendship, for what I get from him is inspirations in academy and positive attitude when bumping into setbacks. Besides, without such tolerance, it may be very difficult to build real friendship from the very start, not to mention a lasting one.
 
  Of course, some may raise a question immediately: trivial things, like different life styles, may not that matter; after all, seldom do friends live together all day long. But when it comes to important diversions, especially those reaching one’s bottom line, is it worth continuing the friendship? The answer is surely yes. For example, your best friend cheated his business client by forging the boss’s signature, would you break up with him, and blacklist his contact? Probably not. After thinking twice, as a true friend, you would tell him your authentic opinion and persuade him to do the right thing. Even if he closed his ears, wouldn’t you analyze the adverse consequences again and again, and wait him to make a change? Probably, that’s what real friends should be.
 
  In addition to all of this, you will also be the beneficiary if maintaining an abiding friendship. No matter what your friend does, s/he may always be the one who understands you the most, and supports you the most. The longer your friendship lasts, the more it appears that s/he is the first one who is willing to help you out when you hit a roadblock, or to unreservedly share his/her opinion when you are stuck in a dilemma. It is often reported that to a man encountering financial difficulties in running his business, or a girl feeling confused about her future, friends are actually the right person to offer help. So friends are the fortune in our lives; though they may do things we don’t like, seeking for communication is a far better way than saying farewell to this friendship. In fact, this is also the thing we expect when we do something our friends don’t like, isn’t it?
 
  6. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: It's better to make friends with intelligent people than with people who have a good sense of humor?
 
  这道题是属于利弊分析题型,难度较低
 
  以下是笔者从make friends with intelligent people的角度给出的解答:
 
  开头段:Friends are those who have confidence in you and offer assistance to you unconditionally(无条件帮忙); They are always there no matter what happens. On a practical level, friends benefit us in many ways due to the valuable characteristics that they are in possession of(拥有). Then which characteristic of a friend is more attractive, being intelligent or humorous? From my perspective, I attach greater importance to(更加重视) intelligence of friends than the sense of humor.
 
  中心句:Making friends with intelligent people affords us the opportunity to achieve self-improvement. 解释句:There is no denying that ingenious people must possess certain significant characteristics making them stand out among the peers. By making friends with them, we are more likely to be positively influenced by them and obtain the important quality and effective methods in dealing with problems we confront in our life, thus increasing the possibility of fulfilling our goals. 举例论证:For example, playing with those who are able to manage their time efficiently helps us foster the ability to plan and organize. Also, talking with a person who enjoys favorable social relationship contributes to the cultivation of our excellent communicating skills. What’s more, learning about a friend who succeeds in realizing his dream through hard work motivates us to set a practical goal and work toward it continuously. Therefore we tend to acquire a myriad of(无数的) wholesome characteristics by building friendship with intelligent people.
 
  中心句:On a more practical level, we have a better chance to come up with creative solutions to the problems we are faced with in our life with the help of ingenious friends. 解释句:It is not uncommon that we have to meet a multitude of(许多) problems or get in trouble that we may find difficult to resolve. 对比论证:However, intelligent friends, being analytical and insightful, never fail to offer advice and guidance that are of great help(有助于) in overcoming these difficulties. Chances are that friends with intelligence help us analyze the situation in an efficient way, correct the mistakes we have made in seeking for solutions and predict the results that our decisions may yield to ensure our successful going through hard times. Thanks to the wisdom and level-headedness(冷静) of intelligent friends we have, there is no need for us to worry about the difficulties we may be confronted with either in our study or work.
 
  让步段:Admittedly, friends with a good sense of humor could bring us jokes and joy and make our life full of happiness. We may have fun when staying along with humorous friends. Nevertheless, at times of sorrow, it is ingenious friends who surprisingly manage to drive off(击退) our loneliness and sadness due to the fact that they are able to comfort us in a comparatively rational way rather than just make us laugh and forget about the adversity.
 
  重申观点:Hence, it is more desirable to have intelligent friends than friends with a good sense of humor. 总结分论点:Not only can ingenious friends provide assistance that contributes toy our success and that makes it possible for you to overcome difficulties, but also they could better satisfy your psychological needs when you are in bad mood than humorous friends do.
 
  7. Which one do you think is the most useful to improve our environment?
 
  a. Walking or bicycling to reduce driving
 
  b. Only consume organic food (reduce pesticide)
 
  c. Reuse or recycle wastes
 
  这道题是一道三选一题型,需要我们选择一个选项来进行主要论述,并且要与其他两个选项做对比。这道三选一题型可以用2+1让步段的结构来写作
 
  以下是笔者给出参考:选择C选项(废物回收再利用)
 
  ① 废物回收利用可以节省材料。(Recycling can save material.)因为回收再利用可以防止有用材料的浪费和减少原材料的使用量(Recycling can prevent the waste of potentially useful materials and reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials),从而也达到了环保目的。举例:生活中纸张和书本的回收再利用就减少了纸张的浪费( reduce waste of paper),从而可以减少树木的砍伐量(decrease the felling of trees),这样就起到了保护环境的作用。
 
  ② 废物的回收可以帮助减少污染物排放(Recycling can help lower pollution emissions)。因为回收之后就可以减少由于垃圾焚烧和填埋而产生的温室气体排放和水污染(reduce greenhouse gas emission from incineration and water pollution from landfilling),从而达到环保的目的。举例:生活垃圾(household waste)中很大一部分是塑料制品( plastics),或者是很难分解的物品(some items are difficult to decompose),回收再利用的话就可以减少焚烧中排放出二氧化硫(sulfur dioxide)或二氧化碳(carbon dioxide)等温室气体,从而也可以减少酸雨量(acid rain)和由于垃圾填埋之后造成地下水污染,这样也起到了环境保护的作用。
 
  ③ 让步:确实,食用有机食品和步行或骑自行车出行也可以减少对动物、植物的伤害,以及温室气体的排放。但是,食用有机食品价格会比较昂贵,人们很难支付得起;步行或自行车出行会给人们的出行带来不便,比较浪费时间,因此人们就不愿意选择这两种方式,从而也很难达到改善环境的目的。
 
  8. Nowadays, children rely too much on the technology, like computers, smartphone, video games for fun and entertainment; playing simpler toys or playing outside with friends would be better for the children's development. Which one do you prefer?
 
  以下是笔者给出的一个参考答案:
 
  choose: (2) play simple toys or go outside to have fun.
 
  题型:对比选择类
 
  话题:科技类,教育类
 
  ① 孩子们在玩简单玩具和外出的过程中可以学会一些宝贵的解决问题的方法. (a good way to develop children’s thinking on solving the problem)。可以用lego游戏为例,孩子在把每个bolck拼接的过程中,锻炼了思维协调能力还有创造力(coordination and creation).同时,在和朋友一起玩的过程中,可以交朋友,变得开朗,得到锻炼还有学会团队合作,一举多得。(make friends, become more easy-going, get exercised, and learn about team-work)
 
  ② 对孩子的健康有益。Healthier 如果孩子们可以不要对着电子产品的屏幕 screen,可以有效预防近视 bad eyesight,脊椎病等健康疾病。和孩子们一起外出游玩,也可以有效避免心理疾病的产生。(mental health)这样无论是对孩子未来的生活还是学习都比较好。
 
  ③ 可以写一个让步段,补充一些科技的好处。
 
  科技可以提供给孩子更多接触到各类信息的机会,利于他们的成长和发展。(get access to various information and good for children’s development)可以用一些调查研究数据说明问题这里,可以参考国家统计局数据,新闻,以及网路。
 
  9. High school teachers (teachers of students ages 14-18) spend most of class time lecturing (speaking) while the students listen and take notes. Other high school teachers spend most of class time on discussion and projects that students are highly involved in and exchange their ideas. Which of these two approaches do you think is more effective for student learning and why?
 
  以下是笔者给出的写作思路:
 
  选择第二个立场,spend most of class time on discussion and projects that students are highly involved in and exchange their ideas
 
  ① 这样有利于培养学生的创造性(cultivate creativity)。因为在小组讨论中,学生只能依靠自己和同学的知识、经验去解决问题,而不是依靠老师给予的建议,可以让孩子提出一些有创造力的解决方案(come up with innovative solutions)。对比论证:然而,如果学生知识一味地听课和记笔记,填压式的教育(force-feed education)会让孩子死记硬背(learn things by rote),扼杀(stifle)她们的想象力和创造力。
 
  ② 讨论学习的方式可以让孩子更有动力去获取知识(be motivated to acquire knowledge)。因为和同龄人(peers)一起讨论、合作去解决问题会让学生觉得很轻松愉快,同学之间也可以相互鼓励学习,从而提升了同学们学习的士气(lift morale)举例论证
 
  ③ 让步段 :确实,听老师上课和记笔记能让学生再学习上更专注,也能在短时间内获得准确的知识。但是,长时间的听课和记笔记会让学生失去思考能力,扼杀他们的想象力、创造力;除此之外,长时间的听课和记笔记会让学生感到疲惫,打压学生学习的积极性(sap one’s enthusiasm)
 
  10. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
 
  The food we eat today is much healthier than in the past. Use specific examples to support your answer.
 
  以下是笔者给出的写作思路:
 
  选择同意方,即现在的食物和过去相比更加健康:
 
  ① 现在食物的多样性更加丰富。现在由于高科技和种植、养殖技术的快速发展,人们摄取食物的多样性更加广泛,因此可以保证人们摄入全面的营养物质,这样有利于更加有利于保持身体健康。比如:现在大棚种植技术,可以保证人们一年四季都能吃到新鲜营养的健康蔬菜,可以在严寒的季节吃到夏天生长的水果,保证营养丰富。
 
  (Firstly, the food of today are manifold, which can ensure people have a more balanced diet than ever before. People who take in diversity of fruits and vegetables are more sanguine and healthier with the rapid development of planting and breeding technology. Take greenhouse technology for example. Greenhouse can offer people full kind of nutritious vegetables no matter what season it is, for instance, people can eat watermelons in severe-cold weather. With nutritious food available, it is easier to keep health today. )
 
  ② 随着营养学的发展、维生素知识的普及,人们的饮食习惯发生改变,人们可以科学地对待一日三餐和严格的甄选把控食物,不再像以前那么盲目了。比如:人们走到书店就可以买到关于营养搭配和膳食的书籍,可以通过书籍有指导地进行饮食。
 
  (People can be more sensible and smarter to make choices about what to eat every meal with the knowledge of Vitamins and Nutrition Science. For example, when entering a bookstore, people can easily find books about the right nutrition arrangement and reasonable diet. )
 
  11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is often not a good thing for people to move to a new town or a new country because they will lose their friends.
 
  难度不大,只要任选其一说出理由即可,思路剖析如下:
 
  注意:不能只谈论朋友,需要把朋友和新环境结合来进行论述
 
  We can make many new friends, starting a new begin for life and get more information of different culture.
 
  ①We will meet many new friends. Since we possess different culture background, the difference teaches us to develop acceptable perspective and make up our weakness in our personality.
 
  ②Besides new friends, it is may a new start for some people to move to a new place. For example, a woman who suffers severely from the last love experience, may forget the hurt and continue to find her true love in a new city; a business man who just experience failure may open a new company and go on fighting for his career in a fresh environment; a young man who live in a small town all time may get an opportunity to reach his goal and fulfill his ambition in the big city.
 
  ③Different food, special cloth style and what is most important—unique culture—will give us a fresh experience and broaden our horizontal.
 
  12. Which do you prefer? An interesting and challenging job with less vacation or a job with more vacation time but less fun.
 
  难度不大,只要任选其一说出理由即可,思路剖析如下:
 
  要结合假期长短进行讨论
 
  More vacation time can provide people more opportunities to enjoy their mental lives.
 
  ①First of all, people can have the chances to experience a lot of different things at their vacation time. An increasing number of people begin to have a distant trip in their vacations. It will be an unforgettable and special experience for me to have a close contact with the nature and learn more about the local culture and history of that region, which can expand my horizons and knowledge.
 
  ②In addition, there is a growing aware about how important it is to get full-relaxed before we go back to work. Besides doing sports, listening to music, watching movies or doing some other things are all good forms of relaxation. Those can refresh our mind from long-time brain work so that we can work even more efficiently and actively after the vacations.
 
  ③Finally, another equally crucial aspect is that more holiday time are needed for us to reunite with our families. The working people really need to have more time to communicate with their families, so a long vacation time is required.
 
  13. Whether playing sports teaches people important lessons of life or not.
 
  难度适中,是开放式的命题。以正面为例,举出三个方面看法。
 
  ①Playing sports teaches people not to give up. 运动教会我们不放弃。比如,在运动赛事中,最基本的规则(basic rules)就是坚持到底(hold on straight to the end)不到终点,没有人知道谁是赢家(winners)
 
  ②Playing sports teaches people not to look down on others. 运动教会我们不要轻视别人。有经验的运动员(experienced athletes)会因为他们的轻敌(treat others lightly)在大型比赛像奥林匹克(Olympic Games )这样的赛事中遭遇失败(suffer failures),遗憾地与奖牌失之交臂(brush against gold medals regretfully)
 
  ③Playing sports teaches people to focus on team spirit. 运动教会我们要有团队精神。绝大部分(absolutely most)的体育赛事(sports events)需要完美地配合(cooperation excellently)去赢得比赛。比如,足球比赛中,精确而且完美的传球(accurate and brilliant passes),才能让前锋或者中锋(forward or center )进球得分(get goals)。
 
  14. Do you agree or disagree that primary school is considering spend more time on teaching young student (5-11) technology (like computer) than teaching music and art?
 
  选择disagree方向,认为低龄学生学习艺术音乐更好:
 
  ①Firstly, for young students accepting artistic-related courses is essential in their primary stage of schooling. 很明显,学生在艺术方面的早期学习有助于他们丰富自己的课程类型(diverse their courses),并且很有可能(be likely to)充分全面的发展自己的潜力(develop their potential to the fullest),甚至于对于以后的就业有一定帮助(contribute to future career)。此处可以具体列举细节;
 
  ②Furthermore, learning technology such as computer in the early stage could be beyond young students’ ability. 低龄学生的学习能力比较有限(be confined to their study ability)。但科技相关课程的学习不仅仅是去回应一些简单的指令或规则(respond to some simple instructions or rules),而是需要系统的学习(study systematically) 。所以,等到他们具备足够学习能力的时候再进行系统的科技课程的学习会更有意义。
 
  ③A more striking viewpoint for me to support the disagreement that young students should not study technology classes when aging at 5-11 is that technology like computer actually is quite common in today’s world. 科技的高速发展带来了电脑等科技的高度普及(wide popularization in our society),所以低龄学生虽然不具备太强的学习能力,但他们在日常的生活学习中已经对科技类相关知识有符合自己年纪的认知(technology knowledge which is appropriate for their age is acknowledged adequately) 。这些都是不需要太早学习科技相关课程的理由。
 
  15. Imagine that If a professor wants students to learn as much as possible about a project in a short period of time, is it better to work in a group or is it better to let students study alone?
 
  以下是笔者给出的一个参考答案:
 
  It is better to work in a group.
 
  ①向他人描述概念和解释材料会加强对知识的记忆。Verbalizing(描述) concepts and explaining material to others help to reinforce(加强) ideas and improves your knowledge retention(记忆). The more you repeat the text, the stronger your memory will become. Group study offers the opportunity to hear information from others, too, which can serve you well should you have a large amount of material to cover. 可用举例论证。
 
  ② 小组学习可以让学生们集思广益。Group study allows for varied views, insights(洞察力) and information to be shared in one place. That sharing creates an open discussion and enhances (加强) your thinking skills. Students who study together tend to share notes and other class materials, building and broadening(拓展) your understanding of the subject. This wealth of knowledge can mean you have more time to focus on key concepts, and spend less time stuck on(停留于) one idea. 可用举例论证
 
  ③小组学习有助于学生的复习。Group study time is a great opportunity for effective review. Create mock tests(模拟测试), quiz one another, and assist those who may be struggling with(与……斗争) course material. Having a team that depends on you can boost your motivation (激发热情) and improve your focus because you’ll feel obliged to(有义务……) help everyone succeed. 可用对比论证
 
  16. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Nowadays people are more willing to help the people they don't know (for example, giving clothing and food to the people who need them) than people were in the past.
 
  agree正方用拆分的方法比较容易论述:
 
  ①First, people now show more willingness to volunteer in charitable organizations than before. 学校的社团会组织学生一起去敬老院、孤儿院,很多成年人也会利用周末时间去做义工,更有人辞去工作去乡村支教。细节及例子应该非常好写。然后再对比下以前的人往往都是做好自己的工作,没有太多意识(awareness)也没有实际行动(action)去当志愿者。
 
  ②Furthermore, an increasing number people now tend to donate money voluntarily to those in need, regardless of who they are. 除了捐钱到慈善机构之外,现在有很多人通过线上平台(online platform)或其他媒体为需要帮助的人捐钱,然而以前一方面没有这样的平台,另一方面大部分因为自己经济条件的限制,也不会像限制这样捐钱给不认识的人;
 
  ③Even if not being a volunteer or donating money, people now are more glad to spread the information of those who ask for help. Social working system的发展让人们能更便捷的获取需要帮助的人的信息,即使自己没有时间去帮助他们,或者没有钱去捐助,人们也更愿意contribute to让更多人知道这个信息,这其实也是一种间接帮助。所以我们能看到很多Twitter上转发的求助信息,然而这些都是几十年前所不具备的。
 
  【Disagree】反方观点从原因角度比较好论述,如:
 
  ①现在的人工作忙碌更加冷漠,人们更关注的是自己过得好不好,而不愿意花时间帮助其他人;
 
  ②经济压力的增大让人们不愿意花钱给别人,更不用说给陌生人;
 
  ③诈捐现象(charity/donation fraud)的增多透支(over-consume)了人们的爱心,这两天非常火的罗一笑事件就可以作为一个例子,当然这个例子放在正方观点中也可以用来论证人们are more willing to帮助其他人。
 
  17. Some people believe going on field trips is better for child’s education, while others think it is better for children to study in the classroom at school. Which one do you prefer, and explain why.
 
  解题思路:选择going on field trips is better
 
  ① 课外拓展首先可以很好的激发学生学习的兴趣(motivate the students to learn)。因为学生能看到外面世界的多面性(introduce young kids to new aspects of the outside world),比如关于某些特定的学科,比如艺术,音乐,以及一些古典文化,学生在课外可以看到很多影像,这样的话,学生精神上会更兴奋也更集中(capture the images, mentally exited and thus more concentrated )。举例论证:如果在学校学习一种建筑风格(style of architecture),老师只是展示图片(show images),学生没法身临其境,导致学生失去兴趣(lose interests),同时也没法感受此种建筑风格的真正魅力(real charm),从而减弱了教学效果。
 
  ② 课外拓展同时对于学生的身心健康也很有帮助(be mentally and physically beneficial to the students.) 。学生不必坐在课桌前疯狂完成所有课程,而在此过程中,不正当的姿势(improper posture)会导致学生的视力下降,以及身形的变形(decline in the eyesight and distortion in the backbone)。此外,一味枯燥的校内课业压力也会让学生,尤其处于青春期有逆反心理的学生(adolescent psychological inversion),产生厌学(tired of learning)的心理问题。适当走出校门,学生的思路则被打开(mind be opened),身体也没有被束缚在一个小小的教室(restricted in a narrow area),而这些都是对发育期的学生们非常好,非常重要的。
 
  让步段: 尽管在学校里面学习也是不可缺少的(be indispensable),因为在学校里,可以在老师的指导下系统地学习知识(acquire information and perceive knowledge systematically under the instruction of teachers)。很多学科都是以理论为基础的(based mainly on theories or principles),我们不需要学习任何有关的学术背景(scientific background)就能快速习得知识并应用(rapidly perceive the knowledge and learn to apply),举例论证:比如数学。对学生来说,学习数学的历史背景对于了解公式定理(mathematical rules and formulations) 并没有太大帮助,而这样的课程完全可以在学校高效的完成(manage to learn efficiently in school)。但是,随着年纪和学习阶段的不断提升(the increase of age and level of learning),孩子会学习到越来越多的非理论型的/偏向实际应用型和艺术创作类课程,为了让孩子有更全面的发展(integrated development),走出教室和学校一定是必然的趋势(inevitable trend)。
 
  18. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People who have learned many different skills are more likely to success than those who focus on learning only one skill.
 
  解题思路:
 
  选择:People who have learned many different skills are more likely to success than those who focus on learning only one skill.
 
  ① 具有多种技能可以在职业发展中有更多的选择(a variety of distinct skills provide individual with more choices in career development)。
 
  解释:现在的社会竞争压力大(competitive pressure), 许多行业因为没有办法满足消费者的需要(consumer demands)而被迫关门(collapse),因此如果这些员工不掌握多门的技术,他们很容易失业(lost their jobs),相反,如果他们掌握不同的技术,他们会灵活的来适应各种环境(flexible to adjust to the situation),更容易成功。
 
  ② 具备多种技能有助于塑造一个人全面发展的个性(all-round development),使我们具备更多成功的特质(qualities)。
 
  解释:数学和物理使得我们学会理性分析(rational analysis),艺术让我们更加高贵(gentleness),文学让我们更感性(sensible)。
 
  ③ 拥有多种技能可以更好的帮助我们克服(overcome)成功道路上的困难(obstacles)。解释: 在成功的过程中,我们会遇到关于管理(management)的问题,关于财务(finance)的问题,关于人事(personnel administration)的问题,如果我们可以掌握这么多技能,那么我们就可以轻易解决许多的问题,而不是依赖(depend on)他人。
 
  19. When people spend a lot of time watching sports on television or following their favorite team. Does this has a negative influence on the lives of people?
 
  Agree:
 
  ① 如果自律能力不强,人们就容易沉迷于各式各样的体育节目。(If people have not strong self-discipline, it is easy to indulge in diverse sport programs.)举例论证:很多青少年会因此放弃学业,将大部分的注意力放在体育节目上(A lot of young people will give up their studies, and pay more attention to sport programs.)
 
  ② 容易盲目崇拜某个球员或某支球队,从而产生过激行为。(People tend to worship blindly a player or a team, which results in aggressive behavior.)举例论证:在观看俱乐部比赛中,常常会出现球迷冲突。(In some club matches, fans usually clashed inside and outside the stadium.)
 
  ③ 看体育节目的时间过长,因此没有时间去锻炼身体。(People spend a lot of time in watching sport programs, therefore they have no enough time to exercise.)举例论证:青少年的近视人数日益增多(The number of myopic juvenile is increasing.)
 
  20. Some people like cooking and eating at homes while others like eating in the restaurants. Which one do you prefer?
 
  立场一:prefer eating at homes
 
  ① 首先,在家里吃饭可以为我们的身体健康提供保障(provide guarantees for our health)。在家里自己买菜做饭可以确保食材新鲜(ensure vegetables and fruits fresh),摄入均衡的营养(a balanced nutritional diet)。外面的餐厅,尤其是价格便宜的餐厅,不能够保证食材卫生安全(safety and sanitation),经常食用的话会有食物中毒(the possibility of food poisoning)的可能。
 
  ② 其次,在家里吃饭经济划算(economical),减少花销(reduce daily expense)。很多成本很低(low cost)的菜品,但是在饭店要算上服务员的工资,房租、水电等费用之后(the fee of waiters, rent and utilities),就会卖到很贵的价格(charge a surprising high price),价格远远超过(far exceed)这个菜品本身的价值。所以没有必要去支付这些不必要的开销(pay for unnecessary expenses)。比如,在餐厅吃一顿要花费200美元,但是如果拿这些钱买菜做饭的话可以吃上几天。(For example, you spend 200 dollars on a supper in the restaurant, but if the money were used to buy meats, eggs and vegetables to cook meals, you would not need to worry about what to eat in a few days.)
 
  ③ 最重要的是(Last but not the least),在家里做饭可以获得成就感和满足感(a sense of achievement and satisfactory)。享受到生活的乐趣(enjoy the life)。通过一家人吃饭的方式可以沟通问题,交流感情,使得家庭生活更加和睦美满(more harmony and enjoyable)。
 
  21. Which one is the most important for teacher of high school?
 
  -the ability to help students plan for their future;
 
  -the ability to find the students who need the most help and to give that help;
 
  -the ability to encourage students to learn on their own outside of the classroom.
 
  解题思路:选择第二个,the ability to find the students who need the most help and give that help
 
  ① 绝大多数高中生很难自己找到自身的问题(The vast majority of high school students have trouble finding out their own problems on study.)。因为他们往往还不够心智成熟(due to immature mentality),不能够去主动发现自己的学习上的关键问题和需求(key issues and needs)。即便发现了问题(even if the problems can be found out on their own),因为缺乏经验(lack of experience),也不一定能及时找到方法去解决(timely and effective solutions might not come out easily)。而且高中生往往不好意思去展示自己的薄弱之处(embarrassed to show their weakness),也就不会主动向老师请教(turn to the teachers for help and advice )。所以,老师能够及时发现需要帮助的学生并给与有效帮助是非常必要的。
 
  ② 老师主动给有需要的学生提供帮助能够提高学生的学习兴趣和信心(improve students’ learning interest and confidence)。得到老师热心主动的帮助,学生会觉得备受关怀和鼓舞(With the help of the teacher, the students will feel being concern and encouraged), 尤其对于需要帮助的学生,可以从新燃起学习的希望和热情(renewing their hope and enthusiasm on study, especially for those who need most help)。
 
  ③ 让步段:诚然,学生对未来需要有一个好的规划,但是对于高中生而言,最直接需要考虑的未来就是高考或者说是大学的选择(what they need to consider first about their future is to perform well in the college entrance exam, which determines their choice of college)。这个目标很明确(a clear goal),并且本质(essence)还是要获得好的学习成绩(achieve good scores),那么仍然是需要老师给予帮助。独立学习能力也确实是一个重要的品质,但是这个完全可以在大学四年的学习中得到更好更自由的发展,而对于并不足够成熟的高中生(immature high school students),自己独立学习很容易走弯路(it makes students take a tortuous road to study by themselves),影响学习效率(decreasing study efficiency)。
 
  22. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for the government to spend more money on art museums and music performance centers than on recreational facilities(like playgrounds, public swimming pool).
 
  解题思路:agree
 
  ① Art museums and music performance centers可以给当地政府带来持续稳定且数目可观的收入(a source of steady and considerable income)。解释:这些场地可以用来举办各类艺术展和明星演唱会, which is attractive to not only local residents but also tourists and fans from other places.
 
  ② 比起public recreational facilities, art museums and music performance centers能够带来更多的就业岗位(employment positions)。解释:这些场馆需要长期的管理和工作人员(long-term staffs to manage and maintain)。并且,展览和演唱会等活动的不断举办也会促进相关产业的发展(stimulate the development of relevant industries)。
 
  ③ 让步:诚然,constructing recreational facilities is also beneficial to citizens, 比如,确实public swimming pools and playgrounds provide easy access for citizens to participate in sport activities and to relax with a lower price。但是art museum and music centers benefit both the public and the government。并且,人们在看exhibition 和 music performance的时候不仅也可以得到很好的放松,还能acquire more cultural knowledge, improve their aesthetic appreciation。
 
  25. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Government should make preschool education free of charge.
 
  解题思路:选择同意
 
  ① 可以让学前教育惠及更多民众(make early education accessible to a greater number of people)。解释:当前社会贫富差距大(a serious financial disparity),这意味着很多社会成员还挣扎在社会底层(a quite big number of social members are struggling at the bottom)。他们养家糊口都成问题(have difficulty feeding their families),更别说给孩子提供良好的教育了(let alone giving their young kids decent education)。
 
  ② 可以刺激经济的发展(boost economy)。解释:如果费用取消(be canceled),学前教育的需求将会井喷(a heavy demand for preschool education will be created)。会有大量的幼儿园建立(be excepted to be built),大量老师会被招聘从事幼儿教育,这是提振当下经济疲软的一剂良方(serve as an impetus to the current sluggish economy)。
 
  ③ 让步段:取消学前教育收费固然优缺点,比如:政府会面临巨大的经济压力(will face a financial burden),或许会对其他领域征收更多的税(levy higher tax on other fields)。但是,教育问题关系到千家万户(the issue of education concerns almost all families),孩子是国家的未来。如果政府能够向公众解释这一行为的动机(inform the public of the intention of this conduct),就没什么可以担心的了(there will be nothing to worry about)。
 
  26. A high school has decided that all students must take a class in which they learn a practical skill. School administrators are trying to decide whether to hold a class in cooking, managing personal finances or auto repair. Which do you think the school should require students to take? Why?
 
  解题思路:选择理财课最重要
 
  ① 可以提升学生的节约意识(raise the awareness of saving money)。解释:现在很多的高中生都备受家人宠爱(be spoiled),家长总是试图满足他们的需求(satisfy their needs)。因此这些被宠坏的孩子(pampered kids)甚至不知道该如何省钱。理财可以让他们意识到赚钱和理财并非易事。
 
  ② 可以增加孩子在未来获得财富上成功的可能性(increase the odds for students to gain financial success)。有理财能力的人更容易获得大量财富(acquire much wealth),理财课恰好能帮助学生为获得这种能力打下坚实的基础(lay a solid foundation for having such ability)。
 
  ③ 让步段:另外两个选项也有一定的价值(the other two options are also of certain values)。烹饪课可以培养孩子的独立性,帮助他们健康饮食(allow them to eat more healthily);汽车维修可以锻炼孩子的动手能力(practical ability)。但是这两种课程都有缺点:烹饪课上,孩子会因为用火不当而造成严重的后果(the inappropriate use of fire could cause a severe consequence);另外,现在汽车的质量都很好,很少需要维修,而且去专业维修站自理也很方便。
 
  27. Which one do you prefer? In times of economic crisis, in which field do you think the government can cut financial support?
 
  1.Art
 
  2.Scientific research
 
  3.Parks and public gardens
 
  解题思路:选择减少Art上的财政支持
 
  ① 艺术更多的是使生活丰富多彩(add spice to our lives),(例子可以举音乐,话剧)很难产生直接的巨大的(direct and considerable)的经济效益;然而科学研究(scientific research),可以降低生产成本(lower cost of production),并且提高不同行业的生产力(productivity),从根本上有利于解决经济危机(economic crisis)。 所以减少art方面的财政支持意味着有更多投入到与经济直接相关的项目中;
 
  ② 艺术相关的东西并不是人们生活中重要(indispensable)的,因此经济危机时期减少艺术上的投资不会给人们的生活带来直接的不便(inconvenience),换句话说,人们并不会因为少看一场艺术展(art exhibition)或少看一场音乐会(concert)而抱怨不止,但是很可能抱怨因为确山公园没有地方进行休闲活动(complain about the lack of parks and gardens because they could go nowhere to easily access leisure activities)。
 
  ③ 艺术相关的领域往往不会需要昂贵的大型的(ultra-expensive and large-scale)的专业设备,所以即使减少相关的投入也不会有导致灾难性的后果(cause catastrophic consequences),相反科学研究往往需要专业昂贵的设备(involve professional equipment which may cost millions of RMBs), 缺少的话很多重要研究会受到影响,而公园中往往也要各种各样的运动器材(equip with a diversity of sports facilities),所以在经济危机期间减少艺术项目的投入是合理的(it is reasonable to reduce investment in arts during economic recession)。
 
  28. Many university students are encouraged to study in those majors, which have an increase of job growth (more needed in the job market) like Science, Technology, Engineering, Math. What are your opinion about to choose those majors instead of what they are interested in?
 
  解题思路:选择自己感兴趣的
 
  ① Interest can help students achieve greater success in their area. 解释:当一个人的专业是其兴趣与未来职业规划的结合体时(a combination of interest and future career plan),这无疑会促使一个人去花比别人更多的时间和努力去钻研自己的专业,那么即便这个专业不是one of the hottest major,学生仍有可能在该领域内获得很好的发展。并且这个学生会因为能够自己感兴趣的事情而感到快乐。(对比论证),相反情况,被迫使选择自己不感兴趣的专业,那么学生很可能一味地很纠结苦恼,并且无法完全沉浸在学习中。最终,即便这些学生学则的时hot major,但不能用心学习,不能在该领域去努力钻也,同样时无法得到好的未来发展的,并且不快乐。
 
  ② If students choose their interested majors by heart, the social competition tends to be naturally balanced. 解释:如果每个人都一味的去追逐所谓的热门专业,那么该领域的竞争必然会急剧加大(the competition in this major or area must increase dramatically)。这样发展下去(If so,),即便这是个社会需求量大的专业,也会因为人才过多而变得很难找到工作(even if it is a major in demand, it will become highly difficult for graduates to find job due to the superabundant job seekers)。
 
  ③ 让步:虽然说choosing a hot major seems guarantee a student a more stable future career development, which can be understood that the student might at least find a job for a living (最起码能找到一份谋生的工作). Nonetheless, 个人兴趣对于未来发展的不可忽视的影响(The unignorable influence of personal interest on future development),以及社会大环境的不断变化都应该被更多的考虑在大学专业的选择中。
 
  29. What is the most useful action for people to help environment in their local community?
 
  l Plant trees and create parks;
 
  l Persuade local shops to stop providing plastic bags to customers;
 
  l Increase access to public transportation (such as buses and trains), thus reducing the automobiles on the road.
 
  解题思路:选择第三种,increase public transportation, reduce the automobiles
 
  ① Increasing the greening does not solve the pollution problems fundamentally/ from the source. 解释:城市内汽车数量如果不受控制(out of control),持续不断增长(keep rising),那么污染气体还会不断增加。这样的话,再怎么增加吸收污染气体的绿色植被都是徒劳的(no matter how much green vegetation, which absorbs pollutant in air, is planted, it fails)。何况(besides),城市土地面积有限且土地昂贵有限,不可能大面积地增加绿地。
 
  ② Plastic stuff is just have minor impacts on local environment。实际的情况是(the truth is),城市中的垃圾原本就是被倾倒或掩埋在(are supposed to be dumped or buried)偏远地区(rural and remote areas),另外,生产塑料袋的工厂往往都建远离社区的地方,所以即使禁止使用塑料袋,工厂降低生产,当地社区的环境也不会有直接的改变。而且,城市中的主要污染,即空气污染(major pollution, i.e., air pollution)不会得到任何缓解。
 
  ③ Finally, reducing traffic can help improve the air quality on a fundamental basis(根本上解决问题). 解释:Fewer automobiles on road means that less amount of fossil fuels will be consumed to generate energy, then less exhaust fume will be released into the air.
 
  30. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Rather than help their children do school work, parents should encourage their children to do work independently. (教育类 利弊分析 2017.02.26)
 
  解题思路:选择同意,encourage children to do work independently好。
 
  ① Doing school work independently is a good opportunity to review what students have learned in class. 解释:without the help of parents, children为了完成作业,不得不自己亲自去再次复习回忆学校课堂里学习的理论(theories)、方法(methods)、公式(formulae)、例子(examples)等内容,甚至在父母的鼓励下,能够主动的去整理所学知识(organize what they have learned)。
 
  ② Children can be more independently overall. 解释:习惯了独立学习之后(after being used to studying by their own),孩子渐渐地就会懂得遇到问题时(run up against roadblocks)主动寻求(seek for)解决问题的方法,而不是(instead of)依赖于别人的帮助(rely on the help from others)。
 
  让步段:some may stress that assisting children with their homework is far different from simply offer help for study. Actually, this is the precious parent-child time(亲子时间) for busy parents to get closer to children and know how children perform in school. The children perhaps are willing to share some little secrets deep in heart. Sounds sweet, right? However, the truth would possibly be far from(远非,完全不) sweet. After wrestling with(努力克服,全力对付) all sorts of thorny problems at workplace, the exhausted parents possibly tend to be out of patience, especially when they find that their children even fail to solve an easy question. These impatient adults are likely to lose their temper and take their anger on the innocent children.
 
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