当前位置:首页 > 新托福培训 >

攻克托福阅读较难词汇的方法

时间:2018-01-11 15:32来源:江苏朗阁外语培训中心 作者:don
在托福阅读考试中,词汇是其中很重要的一部分,尤其是在托福阅读里面会有针对文章中较难词汇的考查,那么要怎么应对这些词汇呢? 一. 构词法 中国的汉字会有偏旁部首,而英语词

托福阅读考试中,词汇是其中很重要的一部分,尤其是在托福阅读里面会有针对文章中较难词汇的考查,那么要怎么应对这些词汇呢?

一. 构词法

  中国的汉字会有偏旁部首,而英语词汇也是如此。词汇的构成有一定规律可循,通常有如下两种:

  1. 合成法:将两个单词合成构成一个新词。

  out + break = outbreak 爆发

  down + hill = downhill 下坡的

  over + throw = overthrow 推翻

  hot + foot = hotfoot 匆忙地

  before + hand = beforehand 事先

  2. 派生法:在词根前后加上前缀或后缀,构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词。

  前缀:

  value (名词,价值) + de-(下,向下) → devalue (动词,降低…的价值)

  little (形容词,小的) + be- (使……成为)→ belittle (动词,轻视)

  后缀:

  inflame (动词,点火) + -ability (能……) → inflammability (名词,易燃性)

  conceive (动词,设想)+ -able(可……的) → conceivable (形容词,可想象的)

  例题:This unprecedented development of a finite groundwater resource with an almost negligible natural recharge rate—that is, virtually no natural water source to replenish the water supply—has caused water tables in the region to fall drastically.

  Q: The word “unprecedented” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A: difficult to control

  B: without any restriction

  C: unlike anything in the past

  D: rapidly expanding

  解析:un表示not没有,pre表示before之前,precede是在……之前的意思,所以选择C正确。

  二. 语境法

  根据上下文语境内容来推断出某个词汇的含义,就是语境法。通常托福阅读中考查到以下两种语境:

  1. 并列语境:所考查的词汇跟前后形成一个同义的关系。

  例题:Given a year of favorable precipitation, such plants will develop vigorously and produce large numbers of flowers and fruit.

  Q: In saying that ephemerals will develop “vigorously" when there is favorable precipitation, the author means that their development will be

  A: sudden

  B: early

  C: gradual

  D: strong and healthy

  解析:可以利用句子的并列关系来推测,develop vigorously和生产大量的花和果实并列,那么很明显,D选项 合适。

  2. 转折语境:所考查的词汇跟前后形成一个相反的关系。

  For example, a pond in hilly country that maintains a steady water level all through a dry summer in spite of having no streams flowing into it must obviously be seepage dominated. Conversely, a pond with a stream flowing in one end and out the other, which dries up when the stream dries up, is clearly surface water dominated.

  Q: The word Conversely meaning to

  A: on the other hand

  B: in the same way

  C: in other words

  D: on average

  解析:原句说有河水流入流出的是surface water dominated,前一句说一个没有地表水流入的pond是seepage dominated,那么后文当然与之相对,所以正确答案是A。

  三. 归纳法

  “狂背单词,疏于整理”是一大误区。积累单词的同时,要进行整理归纳,以下有两种推崇的方法:

  1. 意群法:将意思相近的单词放在一起进行记忆。

  吝啬:stingy, penurious, niggardly, miserly, parsimonious, petty

  贫穷:indigent, impoverished, destitute, penniless, impecunious, poverty

  2. 类比法:将形式相近的单词放在一起进行记忆。

  infect v.感染,传染

  affect v.影响;感染;感动;假装

  inflect v.弯曲;改变;使屈曲

  effect n.影响;效果;作用

(责任编辑:admin)

相关课程推荐

近期文章更新

相关文章推荐